Microparticles (MPs) represent a heterogeneous population of submicronic vesicles that are released in response to cell activation or apoptosis. MPs harbor a large repertoire of cell surface receptors and mRNA and biological activities representative of their parent cells and related to their involvement in many biological functions. Although MP generation is a physiological response, a dramatic increase in circulating MPs is detectable in a variety of thrombosis-associated disorders compared with healthy individuals. In this review, we will discuss a new vision of MPs as complex and ambivalent structures that express both activators and inhibitors of coagulation but also convey fibrinolytic properties. After summarizing our current knowledge about the role of MPs in venous and arterial thrombosis, this review will explore how this new vision of MPs influences their definition as emergent biomarkers in thrombotic diseases. Among the studies that have aimed to establish a link between thrombosis and MPs, a few studies have demonstrated a predictive value of MPs. So far, it is unclear whether this limited causative association is the result of current technical concerns and limited standardization or has to be integrated into a more complex vision of the role of MPs as key systems for regulating the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis.