Thrombolytic therapy or surgery for valve prosthesis thrombosis: systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors

  • F. M. Castilho,

    Corresponding author
    1. Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Aplicadas á Saúde do Adulto, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina e Serviço de Cardiologia e Cirurgia Cardiovascular do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil
    • Correspondence: Fábio Morato de Castilho, Avenida Alfredo Balena, 110 - 5° Andar Oeste ZIP CODE 30130-100, Sta Efigênia, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

      Tel.: +55 31 3409 9437; fax: +55 31 3284 7298.

      E-mail: fabiomorcastilho@gmail.com

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  • M. R. De Sousa,

    1. Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Aplicadas á Saúde do Adulto, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina e Serviço de Cardiologia e Cirurgia Cardiovascular do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil
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  • A. L. P. Mendonça,

    1. Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Aplicadas á Saúde do Adulto, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina e Serviço de Cardiologia e Cirurgia Cardiovascular do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil
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  • A. L. P. Ribeiro,

    1. Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Aplicadas á Saúde do Adulto, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina e Serviço de Cardiologia e Cirurgia Cardiovascular do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil
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  • F. M. Cáceres-Lóriga

    1. Instituto de Cardiología y Cirurgia Cardiovascular (ICCC), La Habana, Cuba
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  • See also Jeffrey R. R. Clots and cardiac valve prostheses. This issue, pp 1216–7.
  • Manuscript handled by: F. R. Rosendaal
  • Final decision: F. R. Rosendaal, 24 March 2014

Summary

Background

Prosthetic heart valve thrombosis is a life-threatening condition for which treatment has not been evaluated by randomized trials.

Objectives

To compare surgery with thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of prosthetic valve thrombosis.

Methods

A comprehensive systematic review was carried out by independent researchers using PubMed, Web of Knowledge, HINARI, LILACS and EMBASE, including papers indexed up to 23 October 2013 with at least 10 patients, evaluating one or both treatment options. Outcomes of interest were death, stroke, bleeding, embolic events and success. Study quality was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (ranges from 0 to 9). Comprehensive Meta Analysis Software was used to pool study results, for publication bias analysis and for meta-regression.

Results

Forty-eight studies were included (2302 patients). No randomized study was identified, and all were observational in design. Study quality varied from 4 to 6 stars using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Mortality for surgery was 18.1% (95%CI, 14.6–22.1; I2, 62% [42–75]), while mortality for thrombolytic therapy was 6.6% (95% CI, 4.8–8.9; I2, 0% [0–13]). Surgical mortality appeared to increase with NYHA-class, according to meta-regression. Other results related to surgery and thrombolytic therapy, respectively, were: embolic events, 4.6% (2.9–7.3) and 12.8% (10.8–15.2); stroke, 4.3%,(2.7–6.6%) and 5.6%,(4.3–7.4%); success rate, 81.9% (77.2–85.8) and 80.7% (75.6–85.0); bleeding, 4.6% (2.9–7.1) and 6.8% (5.4–8.6); and death or stroke, 19.0% (14.8–24.2) and 11.4% (8.7–14.7).

Conclusion

Mortality in patients treated by thrombolytic therapy for valve prosthesis thrombosis is significantly lower than in patients treated surgically. As we cannot yet ascertain whether this difference is due to the treatment alone, more studies are now necessary to further clarify these findings.

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