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A Belgian traveler returning from Laos developed acute schistosomiasis. Feces microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequence analysis revealed Schistosoma mekongi. Schistosome antibody test results and real-time PCR in serum were initially negative or not interpretable. A HRP-2 antigen test for Plasmodium falciparum and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody test for Trichinella yielded false-positive results.