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ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is primarily to lay down a convincing typology of spaces in connection with property rights and management. Instead of the two main ownership models (private and public property) usually pinpointed, we argue that it is more fitting to speak of a plurality of property regimes. So, in this work, we identify and explain six sub-categories: i) stricto sensu public spaces; ii) special public spaces; iii) privately run public spaces; iv) privately owned collective spaces; v) complex private spaces; vi) simple private spaces. This typology of spaces aims to draw attention to the fact that the diversity of spaces affects the type of tolerance in place: when we think about tolerance, it's important to think in a spatialized way, referring to these different property regimes.