Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR), although mechanisms leading to IR in these patients are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of interleukin 28B (IL28B) and interleukin 28 receptor alpha (IL28RA) polymorphisms with IR among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients. We carried out a cross-sectional study on 203 patients. IL28B (rs8099917) and IL28RA (rs10903035) polymorphisms were genotyped by GoldenGate® assay. IR was defined as homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) values ≥3.00. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear models (GLM) were used to compare HOMA values and the percentage of patients with IR according to IL28B and IL28RA genotypes. In total, 32% (n = 65/203) of the patients had IR. IL28B rs8099917 TT was not significantly associated with HOMA values and IR. In contrast, rs10903035 AA was significantly associated with high HOMA values taking into account all patients (P = 0.024), as well as the subgroups of patients with significant fibrosis (P = 0.047) and infected with HCV genotype 3 (P = 0.024). Additionally, rs10903035 AA was significantly associated with IR (HOMA ≥3.00) in all patients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.02; P = 0.034), in patients with significant fibrosis (aOR = 2.86; P = 0.039) and HCV genotype 3 patients (aOR = 4.89; P = 0.031). In conclusions, IL28RA polymorphism (rs10903035) seems to be implicated in the glucose homeostasis because AA genotype increases the likelihood of IR, but this association was different depending on hepatic fibrosis and HCV genotype.