• 1
    Peeters DE, McKiernan BC, Weisiger RM, et al. Quantitative bacterial cultures and cytological examination of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2000;14:534541.
  • 2
    Angus JC, Jang SS, Hirsh DC. Microbiological study of transtracheal aspirates from dogs with suspected lower respiratory tract disease: 264 cases (1989–1995). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:5558.
  • 3
    Radhakrishnan A, Drobatz KJ, Culp WT, King LG. Community-acquired infectious pneumonia in puppies: 65 cases (1993–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230:14931497.
  • 4
    Epstein SE, Mellema MS, Hopper K. Airway microbial culture and susceptibility patterns in dogs and cats with respiratory disease of varying severity. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2010;20:587594.
  • 5
    McKiernan BC, Smith AR, Kissil M. Bacterial isolates from the lower trachea of clinically healthy dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1984;20:139142.
  • 6
    Hawkins EC, DeNicola DB, Plier ML. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of spontaneous respiratory tract disease in dogs: A retrospective study. J Vet Intern Med 1995;9:386392.
  • 7
    Michetti CP, Aldaghlas T. Differences in management and mortality with a bronchoalveolar lavage-based diagnostic protocol for ventilator-associated pneumonia. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012;72:242246.
  • 8
    Hawkins EC, DeNicola DB. Cytologic analysis of tracheal wash specimens and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of mycotic infections in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;197:7983.
  • 9
    Jang SS, Biberstein E, Hirsh DC. A Diagnostic Manual of Veterinary Clinical Bacteriology and Mycology. Davis, CA: University of California Press; 2000.
  • 10
    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals: Approved Standard-Third Edition. CLSI Document M31-A3. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2008.
  • 11
    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Twenty-First Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100-S21. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2011.
  • 12
    Jameson PH, King LA, Lappin MR, Jones RL. Comparison of clinical signs, diagnostic findings, organisms isolated, and clinical outcome in dogs with bacterial pneumonia: 93 cases (1986–1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;206:206209.
  • 13
    Randolph JF, Moise NS, Scarlett JM, et al. Prevalence of mycoplasmal and ureaplasmal recovery from tracheobronchial lavages and prevalence of mycoplasmal recovery from pharyngeal swab specimens in dogs with or without pulmonary disease. Am J Vet Res 1993;54:387391.
  • 14
    Chalker VJ, Owen WM, Paterson C, et al. Mycoplasmas associated with canine infectious respiratory disease. Microbiology 2004;150:34913497.
  • 15
    Rycroft AM, Tsounakas E, Chalker V. Serological evidence of Mycoplasma cynos infection in canine infectious respiratory disease. Vet Micro 2007;120:358362.
  • 16
    Zeugswetter F, Weissenböck H, Shibly S, et al. Lethal bronchopneumonia caused by Mycoplasma cynos in a litter of golden retriever puppies. Vet Rec 2007;161:626627.
  • 17
    Chandler JC, Lappin MR. Mycoplasmal respiratory infections in small animals: 17 cases (1988–1999). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2002;38:1111119.
  • 18
    Kirchner BK, Port CD, Magoc TJ, et al. Spontaneous bronchopneumonia in laboratory dogs infected with untyped Mycoplasma. Lab Anim Sci 1990;4:625628.
  • 19
    Anderton TL, Maskell DJ, Preston A. Ciliostasis is a key early event during colonization of canine tracheal tissue by Bordetella bronchiseptica. Microbiology 2004;150:28432855.
  • 20
    Speakman AJ, Dawson S, Corkill JE, et al. Antibiotic susceptibility of canine Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates. Vet Microbiol 2000;71:193200.
  • 21
    Bemis DA, Appel MJG. Aerosol, parenteral and oral antibiotic treatment of Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1977;170:10821086.
  • 22
    Rennie RP, Turnbull L, Brosnikoff C, J Cloke J. First comprehensive evaluation of the M.I.C. evaluator device compared to Etest and CSLI reference dilution methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical strains of anaerobes and other fastidious bacterial species. J Clin Microbiol 2012;50:11531157.
  • 23
    Tenwolde AC, Johnson LR, Hunt GB, et al. The role of bronchoscopy in foreign body removal in dogs and cats: 37 cases (2000–2008). J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:10631068.
  • 24
    Nagy E, Urbán E, Nord CE. ESCMID Study Group on Antimicrobial Resistance in Anaerobic Bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates in Europe: 20 years of experience. Clin Microbiol Infect 2011;17:371379.
  • 25
    Brazier JS, Hall V, Morris TE, et al. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci: Results of a sentinel study in England and Wales. J Antimicrob Chemo 2003;52:224228.
  • 26
    Weese JS, Faires MC, Frank LA, et al. Factors associated with methicillin-resistant versus methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudointermedius infection in dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:14501455.