• 1
    Detweiler DK, Patterson DF. The prevalence and types of cardiovascular disease in dogs. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1965;127:481516.
  • 2
    Das KM, Tashjian RJ. Chronic mitral valve disease in the dog. Vet Med Small Anim Clinic 1965;60:12091216.
  • 3
    Whitney JC. Observations on the effect of age on the severity of heart valve lesions in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1974;15:511522.
  • 4
    Buchanan JW. Chronic valvular disease (endocardiosis) in dogs. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 1977;21:75106.
  • 5
    Kogure K. Pathology of chronic mitral valvular disease in the dog. Nihon juigaku zasshi Jap J Vet Sci 1980;42:323335.
  • 6
    Grossman W. Cardiac catheterization. Indications in patients with valvular heart disease. J Am Med Assoc 1975;231:858861.
  • 7
    Zellner JL, Spinale FG, Eble DM, et al. Alterations in myocyte shape and basement membrane attachment with tachycardia-induced heart failure. Circ Res 1991;69:590600.
  • 8
    Ljungvall I, Hoglund K, Carnabuci C, et al. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular volume and shape by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:10361043.
  • 9
    Schaper W. Angiogenesis in the adult heart. Basic Res Cardiol 1991;86(Suppl 2):5156.
  • 10
    Beltrami CA, Finato N, Rocco M, et al. Structural basis of end-stage failure in ischemic cardiomyopathy in humans. Circulation 1994;89:151163.
  • 11
    Veinot JP, Gattinger DA, Fliss H. Early apoptosis in human myocardial infarcts. Hum Pathol 1997;28:485492.
  • 12
    Sabbah HN, Sharov VG, Goldstein S. Programmed cell death in the progression of heart failure. Ann Med 1998;30(Suppl 1):3338.
  • 13
    Jubb KP, Palmers N. Veterinary pathology. In: Jubb KP and Palmers N, eds. The Cardiovascular system. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Academic Press, 1992;5362.
  • 14
    Falk T, Jonsson L, Olsen LH, et al. Arteriosclerotic changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure and myxomatous mitral valve disease. Cardiovasc Pathol 2006;15:185193.
  • 15
    Sabbah HN, Stein PD, Kono T, et al. A canine model of chronic heart failure produced by multiple sequential coronary microembolizations. Am J Physiol 1991;260:H1379H1384.
  • 16
    Jönsson L. Coronary arterial lesions and myocardial infarcts in the dog. A pathologic and microangiographic study. Acta Vet Scand 1972;38:180.
  • 17
    Katz AM. Muscle contraction. In: Katz AM, ed. Physiology of the Heart, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins, 2001;135137.
  • 18
    van der Laarse A. Hypothesis: Troponin degradation is one of the factors responsible for deterioration of left ventricular function in heart failure. Cardiovasc Res 2002;56:814.
  • 19
    Horwich TB, Patel J, MacLellan WR, et al. Cardiac troponin I is associated with impaired hemodynamics, progressive left ventricular dysfunction, and increased mortality rates in advanced heart failure. Circulation 2003;108:833838.
  • 20
    La Vecchia L, Mezzena G, Zanolla L, et al. Cardiac troponin I as diagnostic and prognostic marker in severe heart failure. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000;19:644652.
  • 21
    Eggers KM, Jaffe AS, Lind L, et al. Value of cardiac troponin I cutoff concentrations below the 99th percentile for clinical decision-making. Clin Chem 2009;55:8592.
  • 22
    Schulz O, Paul-Walter C, Lehmann M, et al. Usefulness of detectable levels of troponin, below the 99th percentile of the normal range, as a clue to the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2007;100:764769.
  • 23
    Ljungvall I, Hoglund K, Tidholm A, et al. Cardiac troponin I is associated with severity of myxomatous mitral valve disease, age, and C-reactive protein in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:153159.
  • 24
    Pedersen HD, Koch J, Poulsen K, et al. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system in dogs with asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic mitral valvular insufficiency. J Vet Intern Med 1995;9:328331.
  • 25
    Häggström J, Hansson K, Kvart C, et al. Effects of naturally acquired decompensated mitral valve regurgitation on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:7782.
  • 26
    Smith SC, Ladenson JH, Mason JW, et al. Elevations of cardiac troponin I associated with myocarditis. Experimental and clinical correlates. Circulation 1997;95:163168.
  • 27
    Ooi DS, Isotalo PA, Veinot JP. Correlation of antemortem serum creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, troponin I, and troponin T with cardiac pathology. Clin Chem 2000;46:338344.
  • 28
    O'Brien PJ, Smith DE, Knechtel TJ, et al. Cardiac troponin I is a sensitive, specific biomarker of cardiac injury in laboratory animals. Lab Animal 2006;40:153171.
  • 29
    Schultze AE, Konrad RJ, Credille KM, et al. Ultrasensitive cross-species measurement of cardiac troponin-I using the Erenna immunoassay system. Toxicol Pathol 2008;36:777782.
  • 30
    Falk T, Jonsson L, Olsen LH, et al. Associations between cardiac pathology and clinical, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure. Vet J 2010;185:6874.
  • 31
    Buchanan JW. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in radiographs. Vet Clinics North Am Small Anim Pract 2000;30:379393, vii.
  • 32
    Moesgaard SG, Pedersen LG, Teerlink T, et al. Neurohormonal and circulatory effects of short-term treatment with enalapril and quinapril in dogs with asymptomatic mitral regurgitation. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:712719.
  • 33
    Poulsen K, Jorgensen J. An easy radioimmunological microassay of renin activity, concentration and substrate in human and animal plasma and tissues based on angiotensin I trapping by antibody. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1974;39:816825.
  • 34
    Pedersen HD, Koch J, Jensen AL, et al. Some effects of a low sodium diet high in potassium on the renin-angiotensin system and plasma electrolyte concentrations in normal dogs. Acta Vet Scand 1994;35:133140.
  • 35
    Hansson K, Haggstrom J, Kvart C, et al. Left atrial to aortic root indices using two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with and without left atrial enlargement. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2002;43:568575.
  • 36
    Kittleson MD. Echocardiographic estimation of volume and mass. In: Kittelson MD, ed. Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine, 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 1989;105108.
  • 37
    Cornell CC, Kittleson MD. Della Torre P, et al. Allometric scaling of M-mode cardiac measurements in normal adult dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:311321.
  • 38
    Choi H, Lee K, Lee H, et al. Quantification of mitral regurgitation using proximal isovelocity surface area method in dogs. J Vet Sci 2004;5:163171.
  • 39
    Pomerance A, Whitney JC. Heart valve changes common to man and dog: A comparative study. Cardiovasc Res 1970;4:6166.
  • 40
    Detweiler DK. Spontaneous and induced arterial disease in the dog: pathology and pathogenesis. Toxicol Pathol 1989;17:94108.
  • 41
    Caulfield JB, Wolkowicz PE. Myocardial connective tissue alterations. Toxicol Pathol 1990;18:488496.
  • 42
    Sabbah HN, Sharov VG, Lesch M, et al. Progression of heart failure: A role for interstitial fibrosis. Mol Cell Biochem 1995;147:2934.