• 1
    Polzin DJ. Chronic kidney disease in small animals. Vet Clin North Am: Small Anim Pract 2011;41:1530.
  • 2
    Nelson RW, Couto CG. Small Animal Internal Medicine, 4th ed. Edinburgh: Mosby; 2009.
  • 3
    Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, Ross S. Chronic kidney disease. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 6th ed. Stephen J. Ettinger, Edward C. Feldman, eds. St. Louis, MO; Oxford: Elsevier Saunders; 2005:17561785.
  • 4
    Macdougall DF, Cook T, Steward AP, et al. Canine chronic renal disease: prevalence and types of glomerulonephritis in the dog. Kidney Int 1986;29:11441151.
  • 5
    Brown SA. Management of chronic kidney disease. In: Elliott J, Grauer GF, eds. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Nephrology and Urology, 2nd ed. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2007:223230.
  • 6
    Sosnar M. Retrospective study of renal failure in dogs and cats admitted to University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno during 1999–2001. Acta Veterinaria Brno 2003;72:593598.
  • 7
    Gardner IA. The utility of Bayes' theorem and Bayesian inference in veterinary clinical practice and research. Aust Vet J 2002;80:758761.
  • 8
    Bartges JW. Chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am: Small Anim Pract 2012;42:669692.
  • 9
    Lees GE. Early diagnosis of renal disease & renal failure. Vet Clin North Am: Small Anim Pract 2004;34:867885.
  • 10
    Grauer GF. Early detection of renal damage and disease in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am: Small Anim Pract 2005;35:581596.
  • 11
    Tenhündfeld J, Wefstaedt P, Nolte IJA. A randomized controlled clinical trial of the use of benazepril and heparin for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;234:10311037.
  • 12
    Müller-Peddinghaus R, Trautwein G. Spontaneous glomerulonephritis in dogs: II. Correlation of glomerulonephritis with age, chronic interstitial nephritis and extrarenal lesions. Vet Pathol 1977;14:121127.
  • 13
    Vaden SL. Glomerular disease. Top Companion Anim Med 2011;26:128134.
  • 14
    Bartlett PC, Van Buren JW, Bartlett AD, et al. Case-control study of risk factors associated with feline and canine chronic kidney disease. Vet Med Int 2010;2010:12421249.
  • 15
    DiBartola SP, Tarr MJ, Webb DM, et al. Familial renal amyloidosis in Chinese Shar Pei dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;197:483487.
  • 16
    Jones BR, Gething MA, Badcoe LM, et al. Familial progressive nephropathy in young Bull Terriers. N Z Vet J 1989;37:7982.
  • 17
    Lees G, Helman R, Homco L, et al. Early diagnosis of familial nephropathy in English Cocker Spaniels. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1998;34:189195.
  • 18
    McAloose D, Casal M, Patterson DF, et al. Polycystic kidney and liver disease in two related West Highland White Terrier litters. Vet Pathol 1998;35:7780.
  • 19
    Chandler ML, Elwood C, Murphy KF, et al. Juvenile nephropathy in 37 Boxer dogs. J Small Anim Pract 2007;48:690694.
  • 20
    Glickman LT. Association between chronic azotemic kidney disease and the severity of periodontal disease in dogs. Prev Vet Med 2011;99:193200.
  • 21
    IRIS. International Renal Interest Society (IRIS). Available at: Novartis Animal Health Inc.; 2007. Accessed March 8, 2012.
  • 22
    Elliott J. Staging chronic kidney disease. In: Elliott J, Grauer GF, eds. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Nephrology and Urology, 2nd ed. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2007:161166.
  • 23
    VetCompass. VetCompass: Health surveillance for UK companion animals. Available at: RVC Electronic Media Unit; 2012. Accessed March 20, 2012.
  • 24
    Haahr M. RANDOM.ORG: True random number service. Available at:; 2012. Accessed March 20, 2012.
  • 25
    Epi Info 7 CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US): Introducing Epi Info 7. Available at: Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2012. Accessed March 12, 2012.
  • 26
    The VeNom Coding Group. VeNom Veterinary Nomenclature. Available at: http://www.venomcoding.orgVeNom Coding Group; 2012. Accessed March 12, 2012.
  • 27
    Upjohn M, Jasani S, Church D, et al. Establishing an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) in first opinion veterinary practice: Challenges to overcome. In: Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (SVEPM). Liverpool 2008;11.
  • 28
    The Kennel Club. Kennel Club's Breed Information Centre. Available at: London: The Kennel Club; 2012. Accessed May 15, 2012.
  • 29
    Thomas A, O'Hara B, Ligges U, et al. Making BUGS open. R News 2006;6:1217.
  • 30
    Thomas A. OpenBUGS. Available at: Helsinki: 2009. Accessed May 15, 2012.
  • 31
    McV Messam LL, Branscum AJ, Collins MT, et al. Frequentist and Bayesian approaches to prevalence estimation using examples from Johne's disease. Anim Health Res Rev 2008;9:123.
  • 32
    Su C-L. Bayesian Epidemiologic Screening Techniques: Betabuster. Davis, US: Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California, Davis; 2012.
  • 33
    Dohoo I, Martin W, Stryhn H. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research, 2nd ed. Charlottetown, Canada: VER Inc; 2009.
  • 34
    Kirkwood BR, Sterne JAC, Kirkwood B. Essential Medical Statistics, 2nd ed. Kirkwood BR, Sterne JAC, eds. Malden, MA; Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2003.
  • 35
    Heinze G, Schemper M. A solution to the problem of separation in logistic regression. Stat Med 2002;21:24092419.
  • 36
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Assessing the fit of the model. In: Applied Logistic Regression. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 2000.
  • 37
    Bartlett PC, Van Buren JW, Neterer M, et al. Disease surveillance and referral bias in the veterinary medical database. Prev Vet Med 2010;94:264271.
  • 38
    Drobatz KJ. Measures of accuracy and performance of diagnostic tests. J Vet Cardiol 2009;11:S33S40.
  • 39
    Doherr MG, Audigé L. Monitoring and surveillance for rare health-related events: A review from the veterinary perspective. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2001;356:10971106.
  • 40
    Bartges J, Polzin DJ. Nephrology and Urology of Small Animals. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
  • 41
    Egenvall A, Nodtvedt A, Penell J, et al. Insurance data for research in companion animals: Benefits and limitations. Acta Vet Scand 2009;51:42.
  • 42
    Elliott J, Watson ADJ. Chronic kidney disease: Staging and management. In: Bonagura JD, Kirk RW, eds. Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy, XIV. Philadelphia, PA; London: Elsevier Saunders; 2008:883892.
  • 43
    DiBartola SP. Chapter 264: Familial renal disease in dogs and cats. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine : Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 6th ed. St. Louis, MO; Oxford: Elsevier Saunders; 2005:18191824.
  • 44
    Chen ZJ. Molecular mechanisms of polyploidy and hybrid vigor. Trends Plant Sci 2010;15:5771.
  • 45
    Van Vleck LD, Pollak EJ, Oltenacu EAB. Genetics for the Animal Sciences. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman; 1987.
  • 46
    Liberg O, Andrén H, Pedersen H-C, et al. Severe inbreeding depression in a wild wolf Canis lupus population. Biol Lett 2005;1:1720.
  • 47
    Oliver JAC, Gould DJ. Survey of ophthalmic abnormalities in the Labradoodle in the UK. Vet Rec 2012;170:390.
  • 48
    Schiffrin EL, Lipman ML, Mann JFE. Chronic kidney disease: Effects on the cardiovascular system. Circulation 2007;116:8597.
  • 49
    Bronden LB, Nielsen SS, Toft N, et al. Data from the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry on the occurrence and distribution of neoplasms in dogs in Denmark. Vet Rec 2010;166:586590.
  • 50
    Ling GV, Ruby AL, Johnson DL, et al. Renal calculi in dogs and cats: Prevalence, mineral type, breed, age, and gender interrelationships (1981–93). J Vet Intern Med 1998;12:1121.
  • 51
    Nicolle AP, Chetboul V, Allerheiligen T, et al. Azotemia and glomerular filtration rate in dogs with chronic valvular disease. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:943949.
  • 52
    Bartges JW, Willis AM, Polzin DJ. Hypertension and renal disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1996;26:13311345.
  • 53
    Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, et al. Health status and population characteristics of dogs and cats examined at private veterinary practices in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:13361341.
  • 54
    Gregory NG. Physiological mechanisms causing sickness behaviour and suffering in diseased animals. Anim Welfare 1998;7:293305.
  • 55
    Marinelli L, Adamelli S, Normando S, et al. Quality of life of the pet dog: Influence of owner and dog's characteristics. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2007;108:143156.