• Open Access

Left Atrial Ejection Fraction Assessed by Real-Time 3-Dimensional Echocardiography in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease


  • Part of the study was presented as an abstract at the 21st ECVIM-CA Congress, September 2011, Seville, Spain

Corresponding author: A. Tidholm, Albano Animal Hospital, Danderyd, Sweden; e-mail: anna.tidholm@gmail.com



Real-time 3-dimensional (RT3D) echocardiography provides a novel technique for assessing left atrial ejection fraction (LAEF) in dogs.


Left atrial ejection fraction is associated with severity of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD).


Privately owned dogs; 101 with MMVD and 52 healthy control dogs.


Prospective observational study using RT3D echocardiographic estimations of LA volumes at atrial end-diastole and atrial end-systole to calculate LAEF in comparison with conventional 2-dimensional echocardiographic variables.


Left atrial ejection fraction decreased with increasing LA to aortic ratio (LA/Ao), percentage increase in left ventricular (LV) internal dimension, corrected for body weight (BW), in diastole (LVIDd inc%) and systole (LVIDs inc%), and age for MMVD dogs, and with BW for control dogs. The final models in the multiple regression analyses included LVIDd inc% and age for MMVD dogs, and BW alone for control dogs. LAEF varied widely in both MMVD dogs and control dogs.

Conclusion and clinical importance

The wide variation of LAEF and the fact that LAEF does not appear to be an independent marker of disease severity suggest that the clinical importance of determining LAEF in dogs with MMVD might be limited.