• Open Access

American Cocker Spaniel Chronic Hepatitis in Japan

Authors

  • H. Kanemoto,

    1. Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    2. Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • M. Sakai,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan
    • Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Y. Sakamoto,

    1. Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • B. Spee,

    1. Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • T.S.G.A.M. van den Ingh,

    1. TCCI Consultancy BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • B.A. Schotanus,

    1. Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • K. Ohno,

    1. Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • J. Rothuizen

    1. Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • These first two authors equally contributed to this study.
  • The work was done in Nihon University, the University of Tokyo, and Utrecht University. Parts of this article were presented as a poster at the 2007 ACVIM Congress in Seattle, WA.

Corresponding author: M. Sakai, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880, Japan; e-mail: sakai.manabu@nihon-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Background

American Cocker Spaniels are predisposed to chronic hepatitis.

Objective

To describe the clinical and histological features of chronic hepatitis in Japanese American Cocker Spaniels.

Animals

Thirteen cases examined from 2003 to 2009.

Methods

Retrospective study. Medical records were searched for American Cocker Spaniels with chronic liver diseases. History, physical examination, clinicopathologic features, hepatic ultrasonographic findings, hepatic histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were evaluated.

Results

The median age was 4.6 (1.9–10.7) years. Clinical signs included inappetence (11/13), ascites (11/13), lethargy (9/13), diarrhea (7/13), and melena (2/13). Only 1/13 dogs was jaundiced. Clinicopathological abnormalities were increased liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase: 9/12, aspartate aminotransferase: 7/10, alanine aminotransferase: 6/13, alkaline phosphatase: 6/13), increased total serum bile acid concentrations (10/12), and hypoalbuminemia (10/13). The liver had an irregular surface in all dogs and acquired portosystemic collaterals were verified in 11/13 dogs by abdominal ultrasound (2), laparoscopy (4), or both (5). Liver histology revealed severe fibrosis and cirrhosis in all cases, subdivided in lobular dissecting hepatitis (7), periportal fibrosis (1), micronodular cirrhosis (3), and macronocular cirrhosis (2). Inflammatory activity was low to mild. Immunohistochemical stains showed ductular proliferation. The median survival time was 913 (range: 63–1981) days.

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

Hepatitis in Japanese American Cocker Spaniels is clinically silent until an advanced stage and is associated with severe hepatic fibrosis leading to cirrhosis, extensive ductular/putative hepatic progenitor cell proliferation, portal hypertension, and acquired portosystemic collateral shunting, but relatively long survival times. Lobular dissecting hepatitis seems more prevalent than in previously reported cases from other countries.

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