These first two authors equally contributed to this study.
American Cocker Spaniel Chronic Hepatitis in Japan
Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013
Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 27, Issue 5, pages 1041–1048, September/October 2013
How to Cite
Kanemoto, H., Sakai, M., Sakamoto, Y., Spee, B., van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M., Schotanus, B.A., Ohno, K. and Rothuizen, J. (2013), American Cocker Spaniel Chronic Hepatitis in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27: 1041–1048. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12126
The work was done in Nihon University, the University of Tokyo, and Utrecht University. Parts of this article were presented as a poster at the 2007 ACVIM Congress in Seattle, WA.
- Issue published online: 13 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 24 APR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 15 JAN 2012
- Japanese Society for Promotion of Sciences (JSPS). Grant Number: 20780228
- Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
- Breed-related hepatitis;
- Liver progenitor cells;
- Portal hypertension
American Cocker Spaniels are predisposed to chronic hepatitis.
To describe the clinical and histological features of chronic hepatitis in Japanese American Cocker Spaniels.
Thirteen cases examined from 2003 to 2009.
Retrospective study. Medical records were searched for American Cocker Spaniels with chronic liver diseases. History, physical examination, clinicopathologic features, hepatic ultrasonographic findings, hepatic histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were evaluated.
The median age was 4.6 (1.9–10.7) years. Clinical signs included inappetence (11/13), ascites (11/13), lethargy (9/13), diarrhea (7/13), and melena (2/13). Only 1/13 dogs was jaundiced. Clinicopathological abnormalities were increased liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase: 9/12, aspartate aminotransferase: 7/10, alanine aminotransferase: 6/13, alkaline phosphatase: 6/13), increased total serum bile acid concentrations (10/12), and hypoalbuminemia (10/13). The liver had an irregular surface in all dogs and acquired portosystemic collaterals were verified in 11/13 dogs by abdominal ultrasound (2), laparoscopy (4), or both (5). Liver histology revealed severe fibrosis and cirrhosis in all cases, subdivided in lobular dissecting hepatitis (7), periportal fibrosis (1), micronodular cirrhosis (3), and macronocular cirrhosis (2). Inflammatory activity was low to mild. Immunohistochemical stains showed ductular proliferation. The median survival time was 913 (range: 63–1981) days.
Conclusion and Clinical Importance
Hepatitis in Japanese American Cocker Spaniels is clinically silent until an advanced stage and is associated with severe hepatic fibrosis leading to cirrhosis, extensive ductular/putative hepatic progenitor cell proliferation, portal hypertension, and acquired portosystemic collateral shunting, but relatively long survival times. Lobular dissecting hepatitis seems more prevalent than in previously reported cases from other countries.