Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein on Postprandial Glycemia and Energy Intake in Cats
Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013
Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 27, Issue 5, pages 1121–1135, September/October 2013
How to Cite
Farrow, H.A., Rand, J.S., Morton, J.M., O'Leary, C.A. and Sunvold, G.D. (2013), Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein on Postprandial Glycemia and Energy Intake in Cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27: 1121–1135. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12139
- Issue published online: 13 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 13 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 4 SEP 2012
- Feeding pattern;
- Type 2 diabetes
Reducing carbohydrate intake is recommended in diabetic cats and might also be useful in some healthy cats to decrease diabetes risk.
To compare postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations and energy intakes between cats fed diets high in protein, fat, or carbohydrate.
Twenty-four lean cats with normal glucose tolerance.
In a prospective randomized study, each of 3 matched groups (n = 8) received a different test diet for 5 weeks. Diets were high in either protein (46% of metabolizable energy [ME]), fat (47% ME), or carbohydrate (47% ME). Glucose and insulin were measured during glucose tolerance, ad libitum, and meal-feeding tests.
During ad libitum feeding, cats fed the high-carbohydrate diet consumed 25% and 18% more carbohydrate than cats fed diets high in fat and protein, respectively, and energy intake was highest when the high-fat and high-protein diets were fed. Regardless of the feeding pattern, cats fed the high-carbohydrate diet had 10–31% higher peak and mean glucose compared with both other diets; peak glucose in some cats reached 10.4 mmol/L (188 mg/dL) in cats fed 47% ME carbohydrate and 9.0 mmol/L (162 mg/dL) in cats fed 23% ME.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance
High-carbohydrate diets increase postprandial glycemia in healthy cats compared with diets high in fat or protein, although energy intake is lower. Avoidance of high- and moderate-carbohydrate diets can be advantageous in cats at risk of diabetes. Maintenance energy requirements should be fed to prevent weight gain when switching to lower carbohydrate diets.