Review of Equine Piroplasmosis
Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013
Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 27, Issue 6, pages 1334–1346, November/December 2013
How to Cite
Wise, L.N., Kappmeyer, L.S., Mealey, R.H. and Knowles, D.P. (2013), Review of Equine Piroplasmosis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27: 1334–1346. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12168
- Issue published online: 13 NOV 2013
- Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 16 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 15 APR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 5 FEB 2013
- Babesia caballi ;
- Erythrocytic parasite;
- Theileria equi ;
Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of 2 erythrocytic parasites Babesia caballi or Theileria equi. Although the genus of the latter remains controversial, the most recent designation, Theileria, is utilized in this review. Shared pathogenesis includes tick-borne transmission and erythrolysis leading to anemia as the primary clinical outcome. Although both parasites are able to persist indefinitely in their equid hosts, thus far, only B. caballi transmits across tick generations. Pathogenesis further diverges after transmission to equids in that B. caballi immediately infects erythrocytes, whereas T. equi infects peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The recent re-emergence of T. equi in the United States has increased awareness of these tick-borne pathogens, especially in terms of diagnosis and control. This review focuses in part on factors leading to the re-emergence of infection and disease of these globally important pathogens.