Epidemiology and Ecology of H3N8 Canine Influenza Viruses in US Shelter Dogs
Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2014
Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 28, Issue 2, pages 311–318, March/April 2014
How to Cite
Pecoraro, H.L., Bennett, S., Huyvaert, K.P., Spindel, M.E. and Landolt, G.A. (2014), Epidemiology and Ecology of H3N8 Canine Influenza Viruses in US Shelter Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 28: 311–318. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12301
- Issue online: 15 MAR 2014
- Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 19 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Received: 3 JUL 2013
- Morris Animal Foundation. Grant Numbers: D09CA-009, D10CA-401
- Canine infectious respiratory disease;
- Humane shelter;
- Information-theoretic approach
H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) infection might contribute to increased duration of shelter stay for dogs. Greater understanding of factors contributing to CIV within shelters could help veterinarians identify control measures for CIV.
To assess community to shelter dog CIV transmission, estimate true prevalence of CIV, and determine risk factors associated with CIV in humane shelters.
5,160 dogs upon intake or discharge from 6 US humane shelters, December 2009 through January 2012.
A cross-sectional study was performed with prospective convenience sampling of 40 dogs from each shelter monthly. Nasal swabs and serum samples were collected. Hemagglutination inhibition and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays were performed for each nasal and serum sample. True prevalence was estimated by stochastic latent class analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with CIV shedding and seropositivity.
Nasal swabs were positive from 4.4% of New York (NY), 4.7% of Colorado (CO), 3.2% of South Carolina, 1.2% of Florida, and 0% of California and Texas shelter dogs sampled. Seropositivity was the highest in the CO shelter dogs at 10%, and NY at 8.5%. Other shelters had 0% seropositivity. Information-theoretic analyses suggested that CIV shedding was associated with region, month, and year (model weight = 0.95) and comingling/cohousing (model weight = 0.92).
Conclusions and Clinical Importance
Community dogs are a likely source of CIV introduction into humane shelters and once CIV has become established, dog-to-dog transmission maintains the virus within a shelter.