• 1
    Goltz A, Gehlen H, Rohn K, et al. Therapy of atrial fibrillation with class-1A and class-1C antiarrhythmic agents and ACE inhibitors. Pferdeheilkunde 2009;25:220227.
  • 2
    De Clercq D, van Loon G, Schauvliege S, et al. Transvenous electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in six horses using custom made cardioversion catheters. Vet J 2008;177:198204.
  • 3
    McGurrin MK, Physick-Sheard PW, Kenney DG. How to perform transvenous electrical cardioversion in horses with atrial fibrillation. J Vet Cardiol 2005;7:109119.
  • 4
    McGurrin MKJ, Physick-Sheard PW, Kenney DG. Transvenous electrical cardioversion of equine atrial fibrillation: Patient factors and clinical results in 72 treatment episodes. J Vet Intern Med 2008;22:609615.
  • 5
    Reef VB, Levitan CW, Spencer PA. Factors affecting prognosis and conversion in equine atrial fibrillation. J Vet Intern Med 1988;2:16.
  • 6
    van Loon G. Dysrhythmias: cardiac pacing and electrical cardioversion. In: Marr CM, Bowen M, eds. Cardiology of the Horse, 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Saunders; 2010:179192.
  • 7
    Morris DD, Fregin GF. Atrial fibrillation in horses: Factors associated with response to quinidine sulfate in 77 clinical cases. Cornell Vet 1982;72:339349.
  • 8
    Meurling CJ, Roijer A, Waktare JE, et al. Prediction of sinus rhythm maintenance following DC-cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation—The role of atrial cycle length. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2006;6:11.
  • 9
    Holmqvist F, Stridh M, Waktare JE, et al. Atrial fibrillatory rate and sinus rhythm maintenance in patients undergoing cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2006;27:22012207.
  • 10
    Wijffels M, Kirchhof C, Dorland R, et al. Atrial fibrillation begets atrial fibrillation. A study in awake chronically instrumented goats. Circulation 1995;92:19541968.
  • 11
    Everett TH, Li H, Mangrum JM, et al. Electrical, morphological, and ultrastructural remodeling and reverse remodeling in a canine model of chronic atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2000;102:14541460.
  • 12
    De Clercq D, van Loon G, Tavernier R, et al. Atrial and ventricular electrical and contractile remodeling and reverse remodeling owing to short-term pacing-induced atrial fibrillation in horses. J Vet Intern Med 2008;22:13531359.
  • 13
    Patteson MW, Gibbs C, Wotton PR. Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac dimensions and indices of cardiac function in normal adult thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J 1995; supplement 19:1827.
  • 14
    Moe GK. On the multiple wavelet hypothesis of atrial fibrillation. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 1962;140:183188.
  • 15
    Young L. Diseases of the heart and vessels. In: Hinchcliff KW, Kaneps AJ, Geor RJ, eds. Equine Sports Medicine and Surgery. Edinburgh: Saunders; 2004:728767.
  • 16
    Allessie MA, Lammers WJ, FI B. Experimental evaluation of Moe's multipele wavelet hypothesis of atrial fibrillation. In: Zipes DP, Jalife J, eds. Cardiac Electrophysiology and Arrythmias. New York: Grune and Stratton Inc; 1985:26275.
  • 17
    De Clercq D, van Loon G, Baert K, et al. Intravenous amiodarone treatment in horses with chronic atrial fibrillation. Vet J 2006;172:129134.
  • 18
    van Loon G. Atrial Pacing and Experimental Atrial Fibrillation in Equine. Ghent: Ghent University, Faculty Veterinary Medicine; 2001:1253.
  • 19
    van Loon G, Duytschaever M, Tavernier R, et al. An equine model of chronic atrial fibrillation: Methodology. Vet J 2002;164:142150.
  • 20
    Kim IB, Rodefeld MD, Schuessler RB, et al. Relationship between local atrial fibrillation interval and refractory period in the isolated canine atrium. Circulation 1996;94:29612967.
  • 21
    Duytschaever M, Mast F, Killian M, et al. Methods for determining the refractory period and excitable gap during persistent atrial fibrillation in the goat. Circulation 2001;104:957962.
  • 22
    Haissaguerre M, Sanders P, Hocini M, et al. Changes in atrial fibrillation cycle length and inducibility during catheter ablation and their relation to outcome. Circulation 2004;109:30073013.
  • 23
    Matsuo S, Lellouche N, Wright M, et al. Clinical predictors of termination and clinical outcome of catheter ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54:788795.
  • 24
    Goette A, Honeycutt C, Langberg JJ. Electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation. Time course and mechanisms. Circulation 1996;94:29682974.
  • 25
    De Clercq D. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Horses. Ghent: Ghent University, Faculty Veterinary Medicine; 2008:1233.
  • 26
    Frick M, Frykman V, Jensen-Urstad M, et al. Factors predicting success rate and recurrence of atrial fibrillation after first electrical cardioversion in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Clin Cardiol 2001;24:238244.
  • 27
    Biffi M, Boriani G, Bartolotti M, et al. Atrial fibrillation recurrence after internal cardioversion: Prognostic importance of electrophysiological parameters. Heart 2002;87:443448.
  • 28
    Bollmann A, Husser D, Steinert R, et al. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic predictors for atrial fibrillation recurrence following cardioversion. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003;14:S162S165.
  • 29
    Jais P, Haissaguerre M, Shah DC, et al. A focal source of atrial fibrillation treated by discrete radiofrequency ablation. Circulation 1997;95:572576.
  • 30
    Mandapati R, Skanes A, Chen J, et al. Stable microreentrant sources as a mechanism of atrial fibrillation in the isolated sheep heart. Circulation 2000;101:194199.
  • 31
    Li D, Fareh S, Leung TK, et al. Promotion of atrial fibrillation by heart failure in dogs: Atrial remodeling of a different sort. Circulation 1999;100:8795.
  • 32
    van der Velden HMW, van Zijverden M, van Kempen MJA, et al. Abnormal expression of the gap junction protein connexin 40 during chronic atrial fibrillation in the goat. Circulation 1996;94(Supp.1):l593.
  • 33
    Ausma J, Wijffels M, Thone F, et al. Structural changes of atrial myocardium due to sustained atrial fibrillation in the goat. Circulation 1997;96:31573163.
  • 34
    Else RW, Holmes JR. Pathological changes in atrial fibrillation in the horse. Equine Vet J 1971;3:5664.