This study was performed at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California - Davis, Davis, CA.
Hypomagnesemia in Brachycephalic Dogs
Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014
Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
How to Cite
Mellema, M.S. and Hoareau, G.L. (2014), Hypomagnesemia in Brachycephalic Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12393
- Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 5 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 1 NOV 2013
- Center for Companion Animal Health
- School of Veterinary Medicine
- University of California, Davis
- Intracellular magnesium;
- Parenteral magnesium tolerance testing;
- Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome
Brachycephalic dogs are at risk for arterial hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea, which are both associated with chronic magnesium (Mg) depletion.
To compare the period prevalence of hypomagnesemia between Boxers and Bulldogs presented to a referral teaching hospital. To screen a group of Bulldogs for evidence of hypomagnesemia, and to obtain pilot data regarding the utility of parenteral Mg tolerance testing (PMgTT) in the diagnosis of whole-body Mg deficiency.
Chemistry laboratory submissions were retrospectively analyzed for serum total Mg (tMg) in Boxers and Bulldogs. Prospectively, 16 healthy client-owned Bulldogs were enrolled.
Retrospective case study. tMg concentrations were compared between Boxers and Bulldogs. Dogs with low serum albumin or high serum creatinine concentrations were excluded. Prospectively, ionized Mg (iMg), tMg, and arterial blood pressure were measured and iMg-to-tMg ratio (iMg : tMg) was calculated. Parenteral Mg tolerance testing (PMgTT) was performed in 3/16 dogs.
In the retrospective study, period prevalence of hypomagnesemia was 4.7% in Boxers and 15% in Bulldogs (P = .02). The risk ratio for hypomagnesemia in Bulldogs was 1.8 when compared to Boxers (CI: 1.3–2.7). In the prospective study, iMg was [median (interquartile)] 0.43 (0.42–0.46) mmol/L (reference range 0.4–0.52), tMg was 1.9 (1.8–1.9) mg/dL (reference range 1.9–2.5). iMg : tMg was [mean (±SD)] 0.59 ± 0.04. Percentage retention after PMgTT were 55%, 95%, and 67%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance
Mg deficiency is common in Bulldogs and could contribute to comorbidities often observed in this breed. iMg : tMg and PMgTT might prove helpful in detecting chronic subclinical Mg deficiency.