• Open Access

Validation of an Ultrasound Imaging Technique of the Tympanic Bullae for the Diagnosis of Otitis Media in Calves

Authors

  • V. Bernier Gosselin,

    Corresponding author
    1. Département des Sciences Cliniques, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada
    • Corresponding author: Dr. V. Bernier Gosselin, Département des Sciences Cliniques, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, C.P. 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6; e-mail: v.bernier.gosselin@umontreal.ca.

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  • M. Babkine,

    1. Département des Sciences Cliniques, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada
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  • M.J. Gains,

    1. School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Leicestershire, UK
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  • S. Nichols,

    1. Département des Sciences Cliniques, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada
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  • J. Arsenault,

    1. Département de Pathologie et Microbiologie, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada
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  • D. Francoz

    1. Département des Sciences Cliniques, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada
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  • The study was conducted at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec
  • This study was presented as a research abstract at the 2013 ACVIM Forum, Seattle, Washington. This manuscript was included in the master's thesis submitted by Dr. Bernier Gosselin to the Université de Montréal

Abstract

Background

Otitis media is a common disease in calves that can be subclinical, making antemortem on-farm diagnosis challenging.

Objectives

To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography of tympanic bullae for the diagnosis of clinical and subclinical otitis media and to evaluate the reproducibility of the technique.

Animals

Forty calves 19–50 days of age were selected from a veal calf farm.

Methods

Prospective study. Ultrasonography was first performed on the farm by ultrasonographer A (US A). Ultrasonography was repeated by ultrasonographer A (US A') and another ultrasonographer (US B) at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire. Images were later reread by both examiners and a diagnosis was recorded. The calves were euthanized and submitted for necropsy, and histopathologic diagnosis was used as the gold standard.

Results

Forty-five bullae were affected by otitis media and 35 bullae were normal. Sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound technique ranged from 32 to 63% and 84 to 100%, respectively, depending on the examiner and classification of suspicious ultrasonography results. Kappa analysis to evaluate interobserver agreement between A' and B yielded a к value of 0.53. Agreement within the same examiner (A versus A') yielded a к value of 0.48, and real-time ultrasound versus rereading of recorded images for A' and B yielded к values of 0.58 and 0.75, respectively.

Conclusions

Sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound imaging technique are, respectively, low and high for diagnosis of clinical and subclinical otitis media in calves, with moderate reproducibility.

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