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Pharmacokinetics of macrolides in foals

Authors

  • N. Villarino,

    1. Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
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  • T. Martín-Jiménez

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
    • Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
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Dr Tomás Martín-Jiménez, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. E-mail: tmartinj@utk.edu

Abstract

Macrolides are used for treatment of pneumonia and extrapulmonary conditions caused by Rhodococcus equi. In foals, macrolides have an extraordinary capacity to accumulate in different lung tissue compartments. These drugs show unique pharmacokinetic features such as rapid and extensive distribution and long persistence in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from foals. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic characteristics of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, tulathromycin, telithromycin, gamithromycin, and tilmicosin in foals, with emphasis on PELF and BAL cell concentrations.

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