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The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil in isoflurane-anesthetized cats. Six adult cats were used. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was set at 2% and adjusted as required due to spontaneous movement. Fentanyl (10 μg/kg), alfentanil (100 μg/kg), or sufentanil (1 μg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus, on separate days. Blood samples were collected immediately before and for 8 h following drug administration. Plasma drug concentration was determined using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fitted to concentration–time data. A 3-compartment model best fitted the concentration–time data for all drugs, except for 1 cat in the sufentanil group (excluded from analysis). The volume of the central compartment and the volume of distribution at steady-state (L/kg) [mean ± SEM (range)], the clearance (mL/min/kg) [harmonic mean ± pseudo-SD (range)], and the terminal half-life (min) [median (range)] were 0.25 ± 0.04 (0.09–0.34), 2.18 ± 0.16 (1.79–2.83), 18.6 ± 5.0 (15–29.8), and 151 (115–211) for fentanyl; 0.10 ± 0.01 (0.07–0.14), 0.89 ± 0.16 (0.68–1.83), 11.6 ± 2.6 (9.2–15.8), and 144 (118–501) for alfentanil; and 0.06 ± 0.01 (0.04–0.10), 0.77 ± 0.07 (0.63–0.99), 17.6 ± 4.3 (13.9–24.3), and 54 (46–76) for sufentanil. Differences in clearance and volume of distribution result in similar terminal half-lives for fentanyl and alfentanil, longer than for sufentanil.