The pharmacokinetics of glycopyrrolate in Standardbred horses

Authors

  • M. J. Rumpler,

    Corresponding author
    1. Florida Racing Laboratory, Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    • Marc Rumpler, Clinical & Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA. E-mail: mrumpler@ufl.edu

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  • P. Colahan,

    1. Florida Racing Laboratory, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
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  • R. A. Sams

    1. Florida Racing Laboratory, Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    Current affiliation:
    1. HFL Sport Science, Inc., Lexington, KY, USA
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Abstract

The disposition of plasma glycopyrrolate (GLY) is characterized by a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model after a 1-mg bolus intravenous dose to Standardbred horses. The median (range) plasma clearance (Clp), volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss), and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0-inf) were 16.7 (13.6–21.7) mL/min/kg, 0.167 (0.103–0.215) L/kg, 3.69 (0.640–38.73) L/kg, and 2.58 (2.28–2.88) ng*h/mL, respectively. Renal clearance of GLY was characterized by a median (range) of 2.65 (1.92–3.59) mL/min/kg and represented approximately 11.3–24.7% of the total plasma clearance. As a result of these studies, we conclude that the majority of GLY is cleared through hepatic mechanisms because of the limited extent of renal clearance of GLY and absence of plasma esterase activity on GLY metabolism. Although the disposition of GLY after intravenous administration to Standardbred horses was similar to that in Thoroughbred horses, differences in some pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were evident. Such differences could be attributed to breed differences or study conditions. The research could provide valuable data to support regulatory guidelines for GLY in Standardbred horses.

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