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Appendix S1. Seven yr of annual and monthly precipitation at the study sites (Fig. S1), plant community species dissimilarity indices and species richness for grazing and mowing treatments over 5 yr of study (Fig. S2), and life-form statistics for paper Fig. 1.

Fig. S1. Monthly and mean annual precipitation (mm, October previous year through September current year) from 2003 to 2009 at the Briggsdale, Colorado weather station approximately 5 km southeast of study area.

Fig. S2. (A) Plant community species dissimilarity [Whittaker (1952) index (%) of community association] for early-seral and mid-seral seeded grassland grazed, ungrazed, or mowed contrasted with native grazed shortgrass steppe for 5 yr. A dissimilarity value of 100 % would mean that the two contrasted communities had no species in common, and a value of 0 % would mean that all species found in one community were found in the other and each species was observed in the same proportional abundance between the two contrasted communities. Bars within a year not sharing a common letter are significantly different. (B) Plant community species richness (or species density, number sampled per treatment-replicate-year in all quadrats) in early-seral and mid-seral seeded grassland and native shortgrass steppe in grazed, ungrazed, and mowed treatments for 5 yr. The first 2 yr for seeded grasslands were pre-treatment.

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