In many plant species from fire-prone ecosystems germination is promoted by smoke. Mediterranean Basin (MB) flora is no exception. However, most information regarding germination response to smoke in the MB comes from a few experiments performed in laboratory conditions. This approach does not consider factors that occur in the field, such as species interactions, density-dependent processes or the fact that seeds spent time in the soil seed bank. In addition, species selection has been biased (e.g. there is a lack of information about annual species). Hence the importance of smoke relative to other fire cues is not clear, and we have a biased knowledge of post-fire community assembly in the MB. In this framework, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) smoke enhances seedling emergence and establishment from the soil seed bank of MB species, and (2) annual species are an important component of this smoke-stimulated flora.