This study aimed to evaluate the potential of oregano oil as a growth promoter for the yellowtail tetra, Astyanax altiparanae. The fish (1.46 ± 0.09 g) were distributed into twenty-four 60-L aquaria at a stocking density of 0.5 fish/L. Six isonitrogenous (350 g crude protein/kg) and isocaloric (4272 kcal gross energy/kg) diets containing 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/kg of oregano oil were evaluated. At the end of 90 d there was a quadratic effect of oregano oil levels for weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and carcass weight, and the estimated values to maximize these variables were between 0.2 and 0.6 g/kg. There was also a quadratic effect on the feed conversion ratio, and the estimated value to improve this variable was 0.62 g/kg. A positive linear effect of the treatments was observed for muscle glycogen. With increased levels of oregano oil in the diet, there was a reduction in dry matter and ether extract and an increase in the protein content of the carcass. Thus, it can be concluded that oregano oil, at the level of 0.5 g/kg, acts as a growth promoter for A. altiparanae by improving growth performance and carcass composition.