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Keywords:

  • Phaneropterinae;
  • Odontura ;
  • molecular phylogeny;
  • bioacoustic;
  • chromosome evolution

Abstract

We used molecular characters to infer the phylogenetic position of the Western Mediterranean bushcricket genus Odontura and to trace its high karyotype diversity. Analysis of 1391 base pairs of two mitochondrial genes (COI and ND1) and one nuclear sequence (ITS2) was conducted. Phylogenetic topologies were estimated using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and likelihood-based Bayesian inference. The genus Odontura is a phylogenetic outlier in respect of all other European Phaneropterinae genera and has been proposed to have originated from a hitherto unknown ancestor. Our results support the monophyly of the genus Odontura and the recognition of two subgenera: Odontura and Odonturella. We found that both Sicilian taxa of the subgenus Odontura have a completely identical morphology and song patterns. Combining these results, we proposed that both should be treated as subspecies: O. (Odontura) stenoxypha stenoxypha and O. (O.) st. arcuata. Bioacoustic data also proved to support independent markers, with song characteristics reflecting the molecular topology. Mapping the karyotypic characters onto the phylogenetic tree allows a reconstruction of the directions and transitional stages of chromosome differentiation. The number of autosomes within the genus Odontura ranges from 26 to 30. In addition to the ancestral X0 sex determination mechanism, neo-XY and neo-X1X2Y sex chromosomes have evolved independently.