Letters in Applied Microbiology

Cover image for Vol. 57 Issue 2

August 2013

Volume 57, Issue 2

Pages 83–163

  1. Editor's Choice

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Choice
    3. Review
    4. Original Articles
    1. The antimicrobial effects of helium and helium–air plasma on Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile (pages 83–90)

      S. Galvin, O. Cahill, N. O'Connor, A.A. Cafolla, S. Daniels and H. Humphreys

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12091

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Many bacterial causes of healthcare infection can survive in the inanimate environment for lengthy periods and be transmitted to patients. Furthermore, current methods of environmental decontamination such as detergents, chemical disinfectants or gaseous fumigation are suboptimal for a variety of reasons. We assessed the efficacy of helium and helium–air plasma as a decontaminant and demonstrated a significant reduction in bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus on a glass surface. Atomic force microscopy morphologically confirmed the impact on bacterial cells. This approach warrants further study as an alternative to current options for hospital hygiene.

  2. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Choice
    3. Review
    4. Original Articles
  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Choice
    3. Review
    4. Original Articles
    1. Isolation, identification and growth determination of lactic acid-utilizing yeasts from the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle (pages 102–107)

      V. Sirisan, V. Pattarajinda, K. Vichitphan and R. Leesing

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12078

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study demonstrates that yeasts isolated from the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle can utilize lactic acid as a carbon and energy source for growth. The isolated yeasts can be used as probiotic supplements for dairy cattle that are fed highly concentrated diets to reduce ruminal lactic acid production.

    2. Metabolism of isomalto-oligosaccharides by Lactobacillus reuteri and bifidobacteria (pages 108–114)

      Y. Hu, A. Ketabi, A. Buchko and M.G. Gänzle

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12076

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) are applied as functional food ingredients, but the composition and biological functionality of current commercial products are poorly documented. This study is the first to analyse IMO metabolism by Lactobacillus reuteri. Bifidobacteria were used for comparison. Commercial IMO contained IMO with degree of polymerization (DP) of up to four and panose-series oligosaccharides with DP of up to 5. L. reuteri preferentially metabolized short-chain oligosaccharides, whereas bifidobacteria preferentially metabolized higher oligosaccharides. Results of this study allow the modification of the biological and technological functionality of commercial IMO by adjustment of the degree of polymerization and will thus facilitate the application development for IMO.

    3. Evaluation of pectinolytic activities for oenological uses from psychrotrophic yeasts (pages 115–121)

      S. Sahay, B. Hamid, P. Singh, K. Ranjan, D. Chauhan, R.S. Rana and V.K. Chaurse

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12081

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The cold-active pectinolytic enzymes (PME, endo-PG and exo-PG) from the newly isolated and identified psychrophilic yeast Cystofilobasidium capitatum SPY11 and psychrotolerant yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa PT1that exhibited 50–80% of their optimum activity under some major oenological conditions pH (3·5) and temperatures (6 and 12°C) could be applied to wine production and juice clarification at low temperature. The psychrotrophic yeasts themselves could be applied to cold process for the production of enzymes thus saving cost of energy and protecting process from contamination.

    4. Effects of prometryn and acetochlor on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic system (pages 122–128)

      X. Li, W. Miao, C. Gong, H. Jiang, W. Ma and S. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12084

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: In this study, the effect of prometryn and acetochlor on the physiology and metabolic activities of the AM fungus Glomus etunicatum were investigated. Our findings demonstrate for the first time, the impact of the two herbicides at three concentrations (0·1, 1 and 10 mg l−1) on transformed carrot hairy roots/AM fungus association under strict in vitro culture conditions, which may guide the application of the two herbicides in modern agriculture.

    5. Brucin, an antibacterial peptide derived from fruit protein of Fructus Bruceae, Brucea javanica (L.) Merr (pages 129–136)

      T. Sornwatana, S. Roytrakul, N. Wetprasit and S. Ratanapo

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12085

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: An antibacterial peptide, named Brucin with specificity for Streptococcus pyogenes, was produced in vitro from dried fruit protein of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. by pepsin-catalysed hydrolysis. Its inhibitory activity towards the Gram-negative bacteria was higher than penicillin G and chloramphenicol. The result suggested that Brucin may be applied for the treatment of the disease caused by Strep. pyogenes*.

    6. Hydroxyaldimines as potent in vitro anticryptococcal agents (pages 137–143)

      T.F.F. Magalhães, C.M. da Silva, Â. de Fátima, D.L. da Silva, L.V. Modolo, C.V.B. Martins, R.B. Alves, A.L.T.G. Ruiz, G.B. Longato, J.E. de Carvalho and M.A. de Resende-Stoianoff

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12086

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The effectiveness of hydroxyaldimines for inhibition of Cryptococcus spp. growth and their low toxicity against healthy monkey kidney epithelial cells makes them promising lead compounds for the design of new anticryptococcal agents.

    7. Culture conditions and sample preparation methods affect spectrum quality and reproducibility during profiling of Staphylococcus aureus with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (pages 144–150)

      J.E. Goldstein, L. Zhang, C.M. Borror, J.V. Rago and T.R. Sandrin

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12092

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Two culture conditions (agar or broth) and two sample preparation methods (intact cell or protein extraction) were evaluated for their effects on profiling of Staphylococcus aureus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results indicated that MALDI-enabled profiling of S. aureus is most effective when cultures are grown in broth and processed using a protein extraction-based approach. These findings should enhance future efforts to maximize the performance of this approach to characterize strains of S. aureus.

    8. Production of the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with deltamethrin increases toxicity towards mosquito larvae (pages 151–156)

      G. Tetreau, C.D. Patil, A. Chandor-Proust, B.K. Salunke, S.V. Patil and L. Després

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12089

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study is the first report of an increased efficacy of the mosquitocidal bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) when produced with a chemical insecticide. The results clearly demonstrate that deltamethrin is able to synergize the insecticidal activity of Bti through inclusion into spore membranes, reducing off-target and nonspecific toxicity occurring when the chemical is used alone as sprays. This new composite chemical–biological insecticide can become an invaluable tool as an intermediate between single chemical usage and the widespread use of Bti, notably in developing countries with limited financial resources for intensive mosquito control campaigns.

    9. Efficiency of fungus-impregnated black cloths combined with Imidacloprid for the control of adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (pages 157–163)

      A.R. Paula, A.T. Carolino, C.P. Silva and R.I. Samuels

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12090

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The use of fungus-impregnated cotton cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult Aedes aegypti, and this strategy could be incorporated into an integrated vector management programme aiming to reduce the incidence of dengue fever.

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