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Letters in Applied Microbiology

Cover image for Vol. 58 Issue 1

January 2014

Volume 58, Issue 1

Pages 1–94

  1. Editor's choice

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's choice
    3. Original Articles
    4. Editorial
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      Controlling Vibrio vulnificus and spoilage bacteria in fresh shucked oysters using natural antimicrobials (pages 1–7)

      B.S.M. Mahmoud

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12152

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Oysters filter large volume of seawater during their feeding activities that concentrate bacteria such as Vibrio vulnificus in their body. The presence of V. vulnificus in oysters has a serious impact on public health and international trade. There is increasing concern over the use of chemical preservatives. Furthermore, the food industry is looking for new natural preservation methods. This study indicated that lactic acid and citric acid wash solutions could offer an inexpensive, natural and strong approach to control V. vulnificus and spoilage bacteria in fresh shucked for the oyster industry.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's choice
    3. Original Articles
    4. Editorial
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      Efficacy of endodontic applications of ozone and low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma on root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (pages 8–15)

      B. Üreyen Kaya, A.D. Kececi, H.E. Güldaş, E.S. Çetin, T. Öztürk, L. Öksuz and F. Bozduman

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12148

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The present study handles different perspectives on chemomechanical preparation of root canals. Ozone and low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP) were investigated to determine whether they could be an alternative for NaOCl. Up to now, chemical solutions (NaOCl, chlorhexidine digluconate, etc.…) have been used to disinfect the root canals. When the reported effects of LTAPP on biological and chemical decontamination were taken into consideration, a question rose whether it has antimicrobial efficacy in root canals infected with E. faecalis. According to the findings of the present study, LTAPP may constitute a promising aid in endodontics in disinfection of root canals.

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      Decay of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2 on the phyllosphere and stored grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum) (pages 16–24)

      K. Schwarz, J.P.S. Sidhu, D. Pritchard, Y. Li and S. Toze

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12149

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Results of this study suggest that there is very limited potential of enteric pathogens survival on wheat phyllosphere and grains. Therefore, the risk of transfer of enteric pathogens from biosolids-amended soil to consumers of grain products is considered to be low. This study has important implications for the grains industry, as the results suggest that chances of preharvest contamination of grains with enteric pathogens from biosolids-amended soil are low.

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      Optimization of fermentation conditions for green pigment production from Bacillus cereus M116 (MTCC 5521) and its pharmacological application (pages 25–30)

      D. Banerjee, A. Mondal, M. Gupta, A. K. Guha and L. Ray

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12151

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study demonstrated the optimum production of a biopigment (9-methyl-1, 4, 5, 8-tetra-azaphenanthrene) by fermentation of a complex medium with Bacillus cereus M116 (MTCC 5521) in submerged fermentation. This is the first investigation of toxicity and cytotoxicity activities of this biopigment. The study showed that the purified pigment had no toxicity to healthy albino mice but a high cytotoxicity activity in HL60 cancer cell line in vitro. The biopigment had further displayed dyeing capability to both solidified agar and cotton cloth. Therefore, it may represent a nontoxic and natural alternative to chemical dyes and pigments.

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      Inhibition of urease activity in the urinary tract pathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus (pages 31–41)

      A.N. Loes, L. Ruyle, M. Arvizu, K.E. Gresko, A.L. Wilson and C.E. Deutch

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12153

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The enzyme urease is a virulence factor for the Gram-positive urinary tract pathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus. We have shown that urease activity in cell-free extracts and whole bacterial cells is susceptible to inhibition by hydroxamates, phosphorodiamidates and flavonoids, but not by imidazoles. Acetohydroxamic acid and fluorofamide in particular can temporarily delay the increase in pH that occurs when Staph. saprophyticus is grown in an artificial urine medium. These results suggest that urease inhibitors may be useful as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by this micro-organism.

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      Diversity and biological activities of the bacterial community associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior (Porifera, Demospongiae) (pages 42–52)

      S. Dupont, A. Carré-Mlouka, F. Descarrega, A. Ereskovsky, A. Longeon, E. Mouray, I. Florent and M.L. Bourguet-Kondracki

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12154

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study presents the first report on the diversity of the cultivable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior, frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the isolates has been investigated and allowed to select bacterial strains, confirming the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria as sources of bioactive compounds.

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      Improving methyl parathion hydrolase to enhance its chlorpyrifos-hydrolysing efficiency (pages 53–59)

      J. Xie, Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, Z. Liu and Z. Lu

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12155

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Chlorpyrifos is one of the toxic organophosphorus compounds (OP compounds) widely used for insecticides control. Water, soil and foodstuff have been contaminated seriously by chlorpyrifos in some areas. It is urgent to find effective methods to remove its contamination. This work contributes to improve methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) to enhance its efficiency in hydrolysing the poorly hydrolysed substrate chlorpyrifos. Our study brings new insights for enzymatic strategy for the decontamination of toxic OP compounds.

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      Effects of the probiotic Arthrobacter sp. CW9 on the survival and immune status of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) (pages 60–64)

      Z. Xia, M. Zhu and Y. Zhang

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12156

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study demonstrates that Arthrobacter sp. CW9 has both probiotic and immunostimulatory properties. Such new strain therefore represents an alternative to the use of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) culture. New bacterial having both probiotic and immunostimulatory properties are the major novelty of this study. The results are of industrial relevance.

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      Strains of the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli attach to and aggregate erythrocytes (pages 65–69)

      R. Naresh and D.J. Hampson

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12158

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli has been isolated from the bloodstream of immunocompromised human patients, and spread to the liver has been reported in humans and in experimentally infected chickens. In this study, B. pilosicoli was shown to undergo attachment by one cell end to chicken and goose erythrocytes in vitro and to aggregate them. This activity has the potential to contribute to disease severity in avian and possibly other species that develop a spirochaetaemia and systemic spread. Avian erythrocytes may be useful for studying the mechanisms by which B. pilosicoli attaches to cells.

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      Quantification of relative proportions of intact cells in microbiological samples using the example of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (pages 70–78)

      M. Agulló-Barceló, J.A. Moss, J. Green, S. Gillespie, F. Codony, F. Lucena and A. Nocker

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12157

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Whether in the context of microbial ecology or in an industrial context, many questions in microbiology are linked to microbial viability. As cultivation of micro-organisms can be long or may not be possible, fast methods to assess the numbers of live cells are in great demand. We present here a straightforward strategy to determine the relative proportions of intact cells. The PCR-based rapid method is expected to be useful where relative information is sufficient (e.g. for comparing the effect of different antimicrobial treatments on known numbers of micro-organisms) or when the presence of PCR inhibitors does not allow absolute quantification.

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      Growth inhibition and antioxidative response of wood decay fungi exposed to plant extracts of Casearia species (pages 79–86)

      T.S. Bento, L.M.B. Torres, M.B. Fialho and V.L.R. Bononi

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12159

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The Casearia plant extracts exhibited important antifungal activity on wood decay fungi and triggered oxidative stress process, an inhibitory mechanism rarely studied in filamentous fungi exposed to plant extracts. Therefore, a starting point was provided for the development of natural compounds-based products as an alternative to chemical fungicides. In addition, subsidies were given to further studies in order to elucidate in more detail how compounds present in extracts of native tropical plants affect the physiology of fungi.

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      Oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 to mice alleviates clinical symptoms following influenza virus infection (pages 87–93)

      N. Waki, N. Yajima, H. Suganuma, B.M. Buddle, D. Luo, A. Heiser and T. Zheng

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12160

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study demonstrated that oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290), a probiotic strain derived from a Japanese traditional pickle, could protect against influenza virus (IFV) infection in mice. Our results demonstrated that continual intake of KB290 for 14 days prior to IFV infection alleviated clinical symptoms such as loss of body weight and deterioration in observational physical conditions induced by the infection. The beneficial effects of KB290 consumption may have been elicited by the long-lasting enhancement of interferon-α production and the augmentation of IFV-specific immunoglobulin A production.

  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's choice
    3. Original Articles
    4. Editorial
    1. You have free access to this content

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