Letters in Applied Microbiology

Cover image for Vol. 58 Issue 3

March 2014

Volume 58, Issue 3

Pages 197–298

  1. Editor's Choice

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Choice
    3. Original Articles
    1. Isolation and characterization of broad spectrum bacteriophages lytic to Vibrio harveyi from shrimp farms of Kerala, India (pages 197–204)

      I.S. Surekhamol, G.D. Deepa, S. Somnath Pai, B. Sreelakshmi, S. Varghese and I.S. Bright Singh

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12175

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: In sustainable aquaculture, application of antibiotics is prohibited to manage vibriosis, including the one caused by Vibrio harveyi. In lieu of antibiotics, an eco-friendly alternative method, phage therapy, is recommended here. To facilitate the same, a set of six broad spectrum V. harveyi phages, as cocktail, has been constituted and characterized based on morphological traits and by employing molecular tools. These phages were also found to infect other aquaculture pathogens belonging to Vibrio and Aeromonas. Subsequent to in vivo trials, they can find application in shrimp hatcheries as prophylactics and therapeutics.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Choice
    3. Original Articles
    1. Prevalence and diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from a barley trial supplemented with bulky organic soil amendments: green compost and bovine slurry (pages 205–212)

      N.J. Holden, F. Wright, K. MacKenzie, J. Marshall, S. Mitchell, A. Mahajan, R. Wheatley and T.J. Daniell

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12180

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Faecal deposition is considered to be the main process that introduces Escherichia coli into soil, giving rise to their use as a faecal indication species and the potential for cycling pathogens in agricultural systems. We found that bovine slurry was not the main source of E. coli in a barley trial and a high degree of diversity was present in the collection. The findings support the hypothesis that the population structure of E. coli in secondary habitats is shaped by the environment and highlight the drawbacks of its use as a faecal indicator species.

    2. Oral administration of formalin killed Vibrio anguillarum cells improves growth and protection against challenge with Vibrio harveyi in banana shrimp (pages 213–218)

      P.K. Patil, C. Gopal, A. Panigrahi, D. Rajababu and S.M. Pillai

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12176

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The study demonstrates the cross-protection offered by the oral feeding of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum against pathogenic V. harveyi challenge at the early developmental stages of banana shrimp, Fenneropenaeus merguiensis.

    3. Identification and characterization of the geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in Deinococcus radiodurans (pages 219–224)

      C. Liu, Z. Sun, S. Shen, L. Lin, T. Li, B. Tian and Y. Hua

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12181

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Deinococcus radiodurans strain R1 produces a unique carotenoid product, deinoxanthin, as an antioxidant. In this study, DR1395 was identified as the gene encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) for entrance to deinoxanthin biosynthesis in D. radiodurans. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis studies on DR1395 identified the effect of amino acid composition of the aspartate-rich motif on the production of this carotenoid. This study demonstrated the entrance step in the deinoxanthin biosynthetic pathway. These results can be useful in genetic engineering strategies for deinoxanthin production including enhancement of GGPPS gene expression in D. radiodurans.

    4. Interactions of protamine with the marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021 (pages 225–230)

      A. Pustam, C. Smith, C. Deering, K.M.T. Grosicki, T.Y. Leng, S. Lin, J. Yang, D. Pink, T. Gill, L. Graham, D. Derksen, C. Bishop, M.E. DeMont, R.C. Wyeth and T. Smith-Palmer

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12177

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Protamine is a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP), which is active against a variety of bacteria. This is the first in-depth study of the interaction of protamine with a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021. Our results show that protamine is only active in seawater in the absence of divalent cations. In the presence of the divalent cations, Mg2+ and Ca2+, protamine enhances the growth of Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021 and produces chains rather than individual cells. These are important considerations when deciding on applications for protamine and in terms of understanding its mechanism of action.

    5. Antimicrobial potential of metabolites extracted from bacterial symbionts associated with marine sponges in coastal area of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere, India (pages 231–241)

      S. Skariyachan, A. G. Rao, M.R. Patil, B. Saikia, V. Bharadwaj KN and J. Rao GS

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12178

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This is the first study demonstrating antimicrobial potential of flurophoric and chromophoric metabolites extracted from bacterial biosymbionts associated with marine sponges. Our study has significant scope as Indian coastal area especially harbours vast varieties of sponges with novel secondary metabolites-producing organisms. The natural metabolites extracted from sponge-derived bacteria pave novel therapeutic remedy against various pathogens when most of them are emerged as extreme drug resistant superbugs.

    6. Identification and characterization of Cronobacter strains isolated from powdered infant foods (pages 242–247)

      A. Gičová, M. Oriešková, L. Oslanecová, H. Drahovská and E. Kaclíková

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12179

      Significance and Impact of the study: This study characterized Cronobacter strains isolated from powdered infant formulae and weaning foods by biotyping and multilocus sequence typing. The later method was shown to be more discriminative and suitable for both species identification and subtyping. Low level (0·9%) of Cronobacter positivity was observed in 916 samples. Multiple sequence types were observed among strains isolated from the same food product. This highlights that multiple isolates from each single sample should be analysed in epidemiological studies, since more than one genetic subtype may be present.

    7. Biofilm mediates Enterococcus faecalis adhesion, invasion and survival into bovine mammary epithelial cells (pages 248–254)

      M. Elhadidy and E. Zahran

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12184

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Results obtained from current work highlighted the role of biofilm in the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecalis mastitis. Those biofilm-forming strains might be substantial as useful antigens in diagnostic assays and as future vaccine candidates to control Ent. faecalis mastitis.

    8. Enhanced cadmium resistance and accumulation in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 expressing the phytochelatin synthase gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (pages 255–261)

      X. Yong, Y. Chen, W. Liu, L. Xu, J. Zhou, S. Wang, P. Chen, P. Ouyang and T. Zheng

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12185

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The symbiotic system of using plant growth-promoting bacteria Pseudomonas putida to express phytochelatin synthase gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe together in plants resulted in high heavy metal resistance and high accumulation capacity, suggesting potential enhancement in phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated environments.

    9. 'Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from raw meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria (pages 262–269)

      M.D. Ndahi, J.K.P. Kwaga, M. Bello, J. Kabir, V.J. Umoh, S.E. Yakubu and A.J. Nok

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12183

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      Significance and Impact of the Study:Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are important agents of foodborne diseases. Occurrence of these infectious agents was established in meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria. Majority of isolates obtained from this study, displayed multidrug resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, including methicillin resistance among the Staph. aureus isolates. The potential virulence of L. monocytogenes found in ready-to-eat food was documented by the carriage of hly A gene by one of the isolates. A different mechanism of methicillin resistance or different homologue of mec A gene may be circulating among Nigerian isolates.

    10. Human monoclonal single-chain antibodies specific to dengue virus envelope protein (pages 270–277)

      N. Saokaew, O. Poungpair, A. Panya, M. Tarasuk, N. Sawasdee, T. Limjindaporn, W. Chaicumpa and P. Yenchitsomanus

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12186

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: No approved vaccine and specific drug for dengue virus (DENV) infection are available; thus, their developments are urgently required. The human single-chain variable antibody fragments (HuScFv) specific to DENV envelope (E) protein are potential to be developed as therapeutic biomolecules. HuScFv that bound specifically to recombinant full-length DENV E (FL-E) and its domain III (EDIII) were generated and testified for its inhibitory effect in DENV infection. EDIII-specific HuScFv inhibited DENV infection in a dose-dependent manner and has potential to be further developed as a therapeutic biomolecule for DENV infection.

    11. The influence of stevia glycosides on the growth of Lactobacillus reuteri strains (pages 278–284)

      I. Deniņa, P. Semjonovs, A. Fomina, R. Treimane and R. Linde

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12187

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The study showed that the growth of Lactobacillus reuteri strains was inhibited in the presence of stevia sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A. Probiotics, for example Lact. reuteri strains, are often used as functional additives in health foods and are an important natural inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. Stevia glycosides application in food is increasing; yet, there are no data about the influence of stevia glycosides on Lact. reuteri growth and very few data on growth of other lactobacilli, either in probiotic foods or in the gastrointestinal tract. This research shows that it is necessary to evaluate the influence of stevia glycosides on other groups of micro-organisms in further research.

    12. Oral immunization with whole yeast producing viral capsid antigen provokes a stronger humoral immune response than purified viral capsid antigen (pages 285–291)

      H.J. Kim, J.Y. Lee, H.A. Kang, Y. Lee, E.-J. Park and H.-J. Kim

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12188

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      Significance and impact of the study: Provoking sufficient antibody responses by oral immunization has been an enormous challenge because of the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Immunization strategies using purified antigen to make oral vaccines are incapable of commercialization because excessive amount of antigen is required to provoke antibody responses. Therefore, resolving the problems concerning the cost and effectiveness of oral vaccines is a high priority. Our results suggest that recombinant yeast has great potential for inducing antigen-specific immune responses by oral immunization. We believe that oral immunization using recombinant yeast can be a breakthrough technology.

    13. MALDI-TOF MS for identification of porcine Brachyspira species (pages 292–298)

      S. Prohaska, V. Pflüger, D. Ziegler, S. Scherrer, D. Frei, A. Lehmann, M.M. Wittenbrink and H. Huber

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12189

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Current methods for the discrimination of pathogenic Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli from Brachyspira species with low pathogenic potential have proven to be laborious and time-consuming and are therefore not suitable for routine diagnostics. This study describes the evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of different porcine Brachyspira species in routine diagnostic laboratories. The results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is an effective method for the identification of porcine Brachyspira spp. and accelerates diagnosis of swine dysentery and porcine intestinal spirochaetosis.

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