Letters in Applied Microbiology

Cover image for Vol. 58 Issue 5

May 2014

Volume 58, Issue 5

Pages 401–502

  1. Editor's Choice

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Choice
    3. Original Articles
    1. Development of a simple and rapid method for the specific identification of organism causing anthrax by slide latex agglutination (pages 401–407)

      T.G. Sumithra, V.K. Chaturvedi, P.K. Gupta, S.C. Sunita, A.K. Rai, M.V.H. Kutty, U. Laxmi and M.S. Murugan

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12204

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The article presents the first report of a latex agglutination test for the specific identification of the cultures of bacteria causing anthrax. As the test is targeting one of anthrax toxic protein (PA), this can also be used to determine virulence of suspected organisms. At the same time, the same LAT can be used directly on whole blood or sera samples under field conditions for the specific diagnosis of anthrax.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Choice
    3. Original Articles
    1. Campylobacter jejuni prevalence and hygienic quality of retail bovine ground meat in Finland (pages 408–413)

      A.-K. Llarena, K. Sivonen and M.-L. Hänninen

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12206

      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study provides the first data on the occurrence of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in Finnish bovine ground meat. This knowledge is important as part of future Campylobacter risk assessment, management and monitoring programs, particularly when assessing the relative attribution of poultry, pork and bovine meat to the burden of human campylobacteriosis. According to our results, Finnish bovine ground meat at retail level is of good hygienic quality.

    2. Development of ISSR-derived SCAR marker-targeted PCR for identification of Aspergillus section Flavi members (pages 414–422)

      S.R. Priyanka, S.R. Uppalapati, J.J. Kingston, H.S. Murali and H.V. Batra

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12207

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Aspergillus section Flavi members is important owing to their impact on human health and economy. The ISSR-based SCAR-PCR developed in this study is superior over the other existing Aspergillus section Flavi detection systems due to its simplicity and minimal requirement of sample handling. This PCR could be a supplementary strategy to time-consuming and rather ambiguous conventional polyphasic detection techniques and a reliable tool for high-throughput sample analysis.

    3. Environmental enterococci: I. Prevalence of virulence, antibiotic resistance and species distribution in poultry and its related environment in Karachi, Pakistan (pages 423–432)

      S.A. Ali, K.A. Hasan, H. Bin Asif and A. Abbasi

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12208

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study demonstrates that poultry environment of Karachi city harbours a diverse reservoir of Enterococcus spp. with multiple antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants. It is expected that the results will help in assessing the impact of multiple antibiotic resistance and virulent enterococci on public health, improvement of farm management practices and preventing their dissemination. Our findings strongly suggest the need for reducing antibiotic usage during poultry production, particularly those that are being used to treat human infections.

    4. Streptomycete endophytes from anti-diabetic medicinal plants of the Western Ghats inhibit alpha-amylase and promote glucose uptake (pages 433–439)

      V.J. Akshatha, M.S. Nalini, C. D'Souza and H.S. Prakash

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12209

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from two medicinal species of the Western Ghats, a biodiversity ‘hotspot’ in southern India and screened for the anti-diabetic potential for inhibition of α-amylase and improved glucose uptake in the porcine hemidiaphragm. Results indicate the inhibition of α-amylase by Streptomyces longisporoflavus extract with IC50 values of 162·3 ± 1·05 μg ml−1 in comparison with the standard inhibitor Acarbose™ with IC50 value 73·1 ± 1·12 μg ml−1. Further, extract from Streptomyces sp. showed increased glucose uptake by hemidiaphragm. The present investigation implicates the potential of endophytic actinomycetes as sources of anti-diabetic agents.

    5. Presence of T3SS2β genes in trh+ Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood harvested along Mangalore coast, India (pages 440–446)

      B.K. Kumar, V.K. Deekshit, P. Rai, M. Shekar, I. Karunasagar and I. Karunasagar

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12210

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: T3SSs (α or β) are the important virulence factors of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that contribute to their pathogenicity in humans. This study demonstrated the presence of T3SS2β genes in V. parahaemolyticus isolated from the seafood harvested along Mangalore coast. RT-PCR showed that the T3SS2β genes identified in seafood isolates of V. parahaemolyticus were found to be functional. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of T3SS2β genes in trh+ V. parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood in India. The presence of T3SS2 along with other virulence factors such as TDH and/or TRH highlights a potential health risk for seafood consumers.

    6. Inhibitory effect of skatole (3-methylindole) on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43894 biofilm formation mediated by elevated endogenous oxidative stress (pages 454–461)

      S.H. Choi, Y. Kim, S. Oh, S. Oh, T. Chun and S.H. Kim

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12212

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Our findings suggest that inefficient catalase activity of skatole-exposed enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 ATCC 43894 may account for elevated endogenous oxidative stress, leading to damaged cell surfaces and reduction in biofilm formation. Our results also provide that skatole as a new candidate for bacterial signalling may be applied for inhibiting bacterial biofilms in food and feed industry.

    7. Oral flora of Python regius kept as pets (pages 462–465)

      L. Dipineto, T.P. Russo, M. Calabria, L. De Rosa, M. Capasso, L.F. Menna, L. Borrelli and A. Fioretti

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12214

      Significance and Impact of the Study: The oral cavity of snakes sampled harboured a wide range of bacteria. Our results suggest that people who come in contact with snakes could be at risk of infection and should follow proper hygiene practices when handling these reptiles.

    8. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ultra-filtered white cheese (pages 466–471)

      S. Hanifian

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12215

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study was conducted to investigate the factors that influence the survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) during the storage period of ultra-filtered white (UFW) cheese which represents a step forward to meet a critical industry need. Results revealed that the addition of starter culture could restrict the persistence of Map, while Map survival was not affected by higher salt concentration. In addition, persistence of Map was found dose-dependent. It was concluded that in UFW cheese, Map could survive the 60 days of storage period.

    9. Natural extracts stimulate membrane-associated mechanisms of resistance in Gram-negative bacteria (pages 472–477)

      M. Fadli, J. Chevalier, L. Hassani, N.-E. Mezrioui and J.-M. Pagès

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12216

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Thymus maroccanus essential oil and some major components are able to select variants that modify the expression of transporters involved in the influx (porins) and in the efflux (AcrAB family) of various drugs. Importantly, these membrane proteins are involved in the transport of natural compounds and several antibiotic families. This special ‘membrane adaptation’ can explain the persistence of less susceptible/tolerant bacteria in the environment where natural compounds are present and the continuous stimulation of efflux systems in these bacteria.

    10. Optimization of carbon and nitrogen medium components for biomass production using non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts (pages 478–485)

      T. Schnierda, F. F. Bauer, B. Divol, E. van Rensburg and J. F. Görgens

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12217

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Recent studies demonstrate that non-Saccharomyces yeasts confer positive attributes to the final composition of wine. However, optimal process conditions for their biomass production have not been described, thereby limiting commercial application. In this study, industrial media and methods of yeast cultivation were investigated to develop protocols for biomass production of non-Saccharomyces yeast starter cultures for the wine industry.

    11. Effect of citral and carvacrol on the susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua to antibiotics (pages 486–492)

      S.F. Zanini, A.B. Silva-Angulo, A. Rosenthal, D. Rodrigo and A. Martínez

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12218

      Significance and Impact of the Study: Phytochemicals citral and carvacrol potentiate antibiotic activity of erythromycin, bacitracin and colistin by reducing the MIC values of cultured Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. This effect in reducing the MIC values of the antibiotics tested in both micro-organisms was increased when natural antimicrobials were combined. This finding indicated that the combination among terpenes and antibiotic may contribute in reducing the required dosage of antibiotics due to the possible effect of terpenes on permeation barrier of the micro-organism cell membrane.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mitrecin A, an endolysin-like bacteriolytic enzyme from a newly isolated soil streptomycete (pages 493–502)

      M.H. Farris and A.D. Steinberg

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12220

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The gene of a new protein antimicrobial, Mitrecin A, was discovered in the genome of a soil bacterium. The purified recombinant enzyme, resulting from heterologous over expression of the gene, was found to be tolerant of increased pH conditions and to have bacteriolytic activity against Gram-negative bacteria of the medically important genera Aeromonas, Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Yersinia. Characterization of enzymes such as Mitrecin A from previously uncharacterized bacteria provides potential options for new biocontrol agents in medically and economically important applications like therapeutics, disinfectants, food preservatives, agricultural livestock antimicrobials, and inhibitors of biofilm production.

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