SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  1. References
  2. Cases Cited
  • Boyd, Christina L., and Amanda Driscoll. 2013. “Adjudicatory Oversight and Judicial Decision Making in Executive Branch Agencies,” American Politics Research 41: 569598.
  • Bradley, Robert, and Paul Gardner. 1985. “Underdogs, Upperdogs, and The Use of the Amicus Brief: Trends and Explanations,” Justice System Journal 10: 7895.
  • Caldeira, Gregory A., and John R. Wright. 1988. “Organized Interests and Agenda Setting in the U.S. Supreme Court,” American Political Science Review 82: 11091127.
  • Canes-Wrone, Brandice. 2003. “Bureaucratic Decisions and the Composition of the Lower Courts,” American Journal of Political Science 47: 205214.
  • Caruson, Kiki, and J. Michael Bitzer. 2004. “At the Crossroads of Policymaking: Executive Politics, Administrative Action, and Judicial Deference by the DC Circuit Court of Appeals (1985–1996),” Law & Policy 26: 347369.
  • Cooke, William N., and Frederick H. Gautschi III. 1982. “Political Bias in NLRB Unfair Labor Practice Decisions,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 35: 539549.
  • Cooke, William N., Aneil K. Mishra, Gretchen M. Spreitzer, and Mary Tschirhart. 1995. “The Determinants of NLRB Decision-Making Revisited,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48: 237257.
  • Crowley, Donald W. 1987. “Judicial Review of Administrative Agencies: Does the Type of Agency Matter?Western Political Quarterly 40: 265283.
  • Delorme, Jr., Charles D., R. Carter Hill, and Norman J. Wood. 1981. “The Determinants of Voting by the National Labor Relations Board on Unfair Labor Practice Cases: 1955–1975,” Public Choice 37: 207218.
  • Edley, Jr., Christopher F. 1990. Administrative Law: Rethinking Judicial Control of Bureaucracy. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.
  • Elhauge, Einer R. 1991. “Does Interest Group Theory Justify More Intrusive Judicial Review?Yale Law Journal 101: 31110.
  • Epstein, Lee, Andrew D. Martin, Jeffrey A. Segal, and Chad Westerland. 2007. “The Judicial Common Space,” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 23: 303325.
  • Epstein, Lee, and C. K. Rowland. 1991. “Debunking the Myth of Interest Group Invincibility in the Courts,” American Political Science Review 85: 205217.
  • Galanter, Marc. 1974. “Why the ‘Haves’ Come Out Ahead: Speculations on the Limits of Legal Change,” Law & Society Review 9: 165230.
  • Gambitta, Richard A. , Marlynn L. May , and James C. Foster (eds.). 1981. Governing through Courts. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Giles, Michael W., and Thomas G. Walker. 1975. “Judicial Policy-Making and Southern School Segregation,” Journal of Politics 37: 917936.
  • Goldman, Sheldon. 1966. “Voting Behavior on the United States Courts of Appeals, 1961–1964,” American Political Science Review 60: 370385.
  • Halpern, Stephen C., and Charles M. Lamb. 1982. Supreme Court Activism and Restraint. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
  • Hansen, Wendy L., Renee J. Johnson, and Isaac Unah. 1995. “Specialized Courts, Bureaucratic Agencies, and the Politics of U.S. Trade Policy,” American Journal of Political Science 39: 529557.
  • Heclo, Hugh. 1977. A Government of Strangers: Executive Politics in Washington. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Hettinger, Virginia A., Stefanie A. Lindquist, and Wendy L. Martinek. 2004. “Comparing Attitudinal and Strategic Accounts of Dissenting Behavior on the U.S. Courts of Appeals,” American Journal of Political Science 48: 123137.
  • Hettinger, Virginia A., Stefanie A. Lindquist, and Wendy L. Martinek. 2007. “Splitting the Difference: Modelign Appellate Court Decisions with Mixed Outcomes,” Law & Society Review 41: 429456.
  • Horowitz, Donald L. 1977. The Courts and Social Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Howard, Robert M., and David C. Nixon, 2002. “Regional Court Influence Over Bureaucratic Policymaking: Courts, Ideological Preferences, and the Internal Revenue Service,” Political Research Quarterly 55: 907922.
  • Howard, Robert M., and David C. Nixon. 2003. “Local Control of the Bureaucracy: Federal Appeals Courts, Ideology, and the Internal Revenue Service.” Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 13: 233256.
  • Humphries, Martha Anne, and Donald R. Songer. 1999. “Law and Politics in Judicial Oversight of Federal Administrative Agencies,” Journal of Politics 61: 207220.
  • Klein, David E. 2002. Making Law in the United States Courts of Appeals. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Klein, David E., and Robert J. Hume. 2003. “Fear of Reversal as an Explanation of Lower Court Compliance,” Law & Society Review 37: 579606.
  • Lebovic, James H. 1995. “How Organizations Learn: U.S. Government Estimates of Foreign Military Spending,” American Journal of Political Science 39: 835863.
  • Lindquist, Stefanie A., Wendy L. Martinek, and Virginia A. Hettinger. 2007. “Splitting the Difference: Modeling Appellate Court Decisions with Mixed Outcomes,” Law & Society Review 41: 429455.
  • Linton, Richard J. 2004. A History of the NLRB Judges Division: With Special Emphasis on the Early Years. Washington, DC: National Labor Relations Board.
  • Long, J. Scott, and Jeremy Freese. 2006. Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables Using Stata. College Station, TX: Stata Press.
  • Meier, Kenneth J., and Lael R. Keiser. 1996. “Public Administration as a Science of Artificial: A Methodology for Prescription,” Public Administration Review 56: 459466.
  • Melnick, R. Shep. 1983. Regulation and the Courts: The Case of the Clean Air Act. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Moe, Terry M. 1985. “Control and Feedback in Economic Regulation: The Case of theNLRB,” American Political Science Review 79: 10941116.
  • O'Connor, Karen, and Lee Epstein. 1982. “Amicus Participation in the U.S. Supreme Court: An Appraisal of Hakman's Folklore,” Law & Society Review 16: 311320.
  • Olsen, Susan M. 1990. “Interest-Group Litigation in Federal District Court: Beyond the Political Disadvantage Theory,” Journal of Politics 52: 854882.
  • Ringquist, Evan J., and Craig E. Emmert. 1999. “Judicial Policymaking in Published and Unpublished Decisions: The Case of Environmental Civil Litigation,” Political Research Quarterly 52: 737.
  • Rowland, C. K., and Robert A. Carp. 1996. Politics and Judgment in the Federal District Courts. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas.
  • Sabatier, Paul A. 1988. “An Advocacy Coalition Framework of Policy Change and the Role of Policy-Oriented Learning Therein,” Policy Sciences 21: 129168.
  • Sabatier, Paul A., and Hank C. Jenkins-Smith. 1993. Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Segal, Jeffrey A., and Harold J. Spaeth. 1993. The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Segal, Jeffrey A., and Harold J. Spaeth. 2002. The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model Revisited. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Shapiro, Martin. 1968. The Supreme Court and Administrative Agencies. New York: Free Press.
  • Shapiro, Martin.. 1993. “Public Law and Judicial Politics.” In State of the Discipline II, edited by Ada Finifter . Washington, DC: American Political Science Association.
  • Sheehan, Reginald S. 1990. “Administrative Agencies and the Court: A Reexamination of the Impact of Agency Type on Decisional Outcomes,” Western Political Quarterly 43: 875885.
  • Sheehan, Reginald S.. 1992. “Federal Agencies and the Supreme Court,” American Politics Quarterly 20: 478500.
  • Songer, Donald R. 1987. “The Impact of the Supreme Court on Trends in Economic Policy Making in the United States Courts of Appeals,” Journal of Politics 49: 830841.
  • Songer, Donald R., and Susan Haire. 1992. “Integrating Alternative Approaches to the Study of Judicial Voting: Obscenity Cases in the U.S. Courts of Appeals,” American Journal of Political Science 36: 963982.
  • Songer, Donald R., and Reginald Sheehan. 1992. “Who Wins on Appeal? Upperdogs and Underdogs in the United States Courts of Appeals,” American Journal of Political Science. 36: 235258.
  • Songer, Donald R., Jeffrey A. Segal, and Charles M. Cameron. 1994. “The Hierarchy of Justice: Testing a Principal-Agent Model of Supreme Court-Circuit Court Interactions,” American Journal of Political Science 38: 673696.
  • Spaeth, Harold J., Ted Ruger, Jeffrey Segal, Andrew D. Martin, and Sara Benesh. 2013. The Supreme Court Database. http://scdb.wustl.edu/about.php?s=3 (accessed September 20, 2013).
  • Spaeth, Harold J., and Stuart Teger. 1982. “Activism and Restraint: A Cloak for the Justices' Policy Preferences.” In Supreme Court Activism and Restraint, edited by Stephen C. Halpern and Charles M. Lamb , 277302. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
  • Sudnow, David. 1965. “Normal Crimes: Sociological Features of the Penal Code in a Public Defender Office,” Social Problems 12: 255275.
  • Taratoot, Cole D. 2013. “Review of Administrative Law Judge Decisions by the Political Appointees of the NLRB, 1991–2006,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 23: 551580.
  • Taratoot, Cole D., and Robert M. Howard. 2011. “The Labor of Judging: Examining Administration Law Judge Decisions,” American Politics Research 39: 832858.
  • Thompson, Frank J. 1982. “Deregulation by the Bureaucracy: OSHA and the Augean Quest for Error Correction,” Public Administration Review 42: 202212.
  • Unah, Isaac. 1997. “Specialized Courts of Appeals' Review of Bureaucratic Actions and the Politics of Protectionism,” Political Research Quarterly 50: 851878.
  • Van Winkle, Steven R. 1997. “Rotating Three-Judge Panels and Strategic Behavior on the U.S. Courts of Appeals.” Unpublished manuscript.

Cases Cited

  1. References
  2. Cases Cited
  • Allentown Mack Sales and Service, Inc. v. National Labor Relations Board, 522 U.S. 359 (1998).
  • American Polystyrene Corporation, 341 NLRB No. 67 (2004).
  • American Polystyrene Corporation v. International Chemical Workers Union Council of the United Food & Commercial Workers International and Its Local 1C, 31-CA-25761 (2003).
  • Auciello Iron Works, Inc. v. National Labor Relations Board, 517 U.S. 781 (1996).
  • Chevron v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 467 U.S. 837 (1984).
  • GSX Corporation of Missouri v. NLRB, 918 F.2d 1351 (8th Cir. 1990).
  • Hoffman Plastic Compounds, Inc. v. National Labor Relations Board, 35 U.S. 137 (2002).
  • International Chemical Workers Union Council of the United Food & Commercial Workers International, Local 1C v. National Labor Relations Board, 447 F.3d 1153 (9th Cir. 2006).
  • National Labor Relations Board v. Kentucky River Community Care, Inc., 532 U.S. 706 (2001).
  • Universal Camera Corporation v. National Labor Relations Board, 340 U.S. 474 (1951).