• Biostratigraphy;
  • chronostratigraphy;
  • conodont;
  • Mississippian;
  • Pennsylvanian

The Barcaliente Formation in its type section provides significant conodont occurrences in the Mid-Carboniferous Boundary interval (between the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sub-periods). A sequence of Declinognathodus morphotype appearances (considered here as species) is recognized from the uppermost Serpukhovian to the lower Bashkirian. These morphotypes belong to Declinognathodus noduliferus (Ellison & Graves) sensu lato, the primary marker for the worldwide correlation of the Mid-Carboniferous Boundary. Among them, D. inaequalis (Higgins) appears to have been the first species to occur at the Mid-Carboniferous Boundary bed in the Arrow Canyon GSSP. A morphocline between D. bernesgae (Sanz-López et al.) and D. inaequalis is studied here to identify the bed correlated with the GSSP. Other diagnostic first occurrences of conodonts (Rachistognathus minutus (Higgins & Bouckaert), D. noduliferus, D. lateralis (Higgins & Bouckaert), Idiognathoides asiaticus Nigmadganov & Nemirovskaya and I. corrugatus (Harris & Hollingsworth)) are evaluated as chrono-markers throughout their worldwide distribution, particularly for the Eurasian faunas. The available secondary markers provide a better resolution and support chrono-correlation in sections other than that at the GSSP. The worldwide first and late occurrences of studied taxa are considered within the background of the Mid-Carboniferous Extinction Event and the conodont overturn, where crises progenitor Declinognathodus gave rise to members of the Family Idiognathodontidae. Firstly, progenitor taxa are good biostratigraphic tools, whereas local extinction of genera considered Mississippian in age and new taxa arising later in the post-crises radiation suggest an early Bashkirian palaeogeography and climatic conditions confining temporarily the biogeographic distribution of conodonts.