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Keywords:

  • biliary lesions;
  • nodular regenerative hyperplasia;
  • Steatohepatitis;
  • vascular liver disease

Abstract

Liver test abnormalities are frequent in adult patients with Turner syndrome, corresponding to various pathophysiological mechanisms. Steatosis, steatofibrosis and steatohepatitis are the most frequently reported lesions, caused by metabolic disorders, which are commonly related to overweight. Marked architectural changes, including nodular regenerative hyperplasia, multiple focal nodular hyperplasia and cirrhosis, found in some patients, are associated with a risk of severe liver-related complications. Architectural changes are often observed and are associated with vascular disorders caused by congenitally abnormal vessels. Finally, small bile duct alterations resembling sclerosing cholangitis occur in several patients. Oestrogen replacement therapy does not cause liver toxicity in patients with Turner syndrome and is not contraindicated in case of elevated liver enzymes. Moreover, in recent studies, oestrogen therapy was reported to improve liver function tests. Because of the wide spectrum of potential liver injuries that may occur in Turner syndrome patients, a regular screening of liver enzymes is recommended for early detection and treatment.