Cirrhosis and Liver Failure
Post-paracentesis circulatory derangements are related to monocyte activation
Background & Aims
Post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction is associated with development of hepatorenal syndrome and increased mortality. The impact of large volume paracentesis (LVP) on the 24-h blood pressure (BP) profile is unknown, and the relationship to Na+-retentive and pro-inflammatory cytokines also remains unknown. The aims of this study were to (i) define the effects of LVP with albumin administration on 24-h BP profiles, and (ii) relate changes in BP over time to changes in Na+-retentive hormones, clinical factors and inflammatory cytokines.
Ten patients undergoing LVP had 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring performed pre- and post-paracentesis. Markers of the innate immune system, bacterial translocation and Na+-retentive hormones were drawn pre- and post-LVP.
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) dropped in nine of the 10 patients in the 24 h following a paracentesis compared to 24 h preceding the procedure (mean drop of 5.5 mmHg, P < 0.005). A mixed effects model was used to define time-covariate interactions in predicting changes in BP profile. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) was associated with Δsystolic BP (β = −0.011, P < 0.05), Δdiastolic BP (β = −0.012, P < 0.05) and ΔMAP (β = −0.012, P < 0.05). Plasma renin activity was also significantly associated with Δsystolic BP (β = −0.21, P < 0.05). Renal function was also significantly reduced following LVP.
Systolic, diastolic and MAP decreased over 24 h after LVP compared to the 24 h pre-LVP. This drop is related to increases in MCP-1 after LVP. Increased MCP-1, a marker of monocyte activation, was strongly related to changes in BP.