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Keywords:

  • angiogenesis;
  • cirrhosis;
  • endoplasmic reticulum stress;
  • liver diseases;
  • unfolded protein response;
  • vascular endothelial growth factor A

Abstract

When cells are subjected to stress by changes in their extracellular environment, unfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing ER stress. This initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signal transduction cascade aiming at restoring cellular homeostasis. The UPR and angiogenesis are involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as cancer, pulmonary diseases and chronic liver diseases (CLDs) including alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis B. This review summarizes the upcoming knowledge of the interaction between the UPR and angiogenesis in physiological angiogenesis and in different CLDs and other diseases.