Pleistocene glaciations were among the important historic events that shaped the population structures of marine organisms. Genetic studies of different marine fauna and flora have demonstrated the effect of Pleistocene glaciations on taxa that reside in marginal seas. However, how marine island species responded to Pleistocene glaciations remains relatively unstudied, especially in Asia. Genetic analyses based on the island-associated barnacle Chthamalus moro collected from 14 sites in Asia reveal that C. moro comprises three distinct lineages, with COI divergence ranging from 3.9 to 8.3%. Population genetic analyses on respective lineages reveal signs of demographic expansion within the Pleistocene epoch at different times. The Ogasawara lineage, which has a more oceanic distribution, expanded the earliest, followed by the population expansion of the Ryukyu and Southern lineages that inhabit islands closer to the continent. The data suggest that the inhabitants of outer islands may have been less affected by Pleistocene glaciations than those that reside closer to the continent, as the former were able to maintain a large, stable, effective population size throughout the late Pleistocene.