SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aranda M, Sánchez-Cordero V (1996) Prey spectra of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) in tropical forests of Mexico. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 31: 6567.
  • Atkinson RPG, Macdonald DW, Kamizota R (2002) Dietary opportunism in side-striped jackals. Journal of Zoology 257: 129139.
  • Bailey TN (1993) The African Leopard. Ecology and Behaviour of a Solitary Felid. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.
  • Barber-Meyer SM, Mech LD, White PJ (2008) Elk calf survival and mortality following wolf restoration to Yellowstone National Park. Wildlife Monographs 169: 130.
  • Bekoff M, Wells MC (1981) Behavioural budgeting by wild coyotes: the influence of food resources and social organisation. Animal Behaviour 29: 794801.
  • Bengis RG, Grant R, de Vos V (2003) Wildlife diseases and veterinary controls: a savanna ecosystem perspective. In: du Toit JT , Biggs HC , Rogers KH (eds) The Kruger Experience: Ecology and Management of Savanna Heterogeneity, 349369. Island Press, Washington DC, USA.
  • Bertram B (1979) Serengeti predators and their social systems. In: Sinclair ARE , Norton-Griffiths M (eds) Serengeti. Dynamics of An Ecosystem, 221248. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Borner N, FitzGibbon CD, Borner M, Caro TM, Lindsay WK, Collins DA, Holt ME (1987) The decline of the Serengeti Thomson's gazelle population. Oecologia 73: 3240.
  • Carbone C, Teacher J, Rowcliffe M (2007) The costs of carnivory. PLoS Biology 5: 363368.
  • Caro TM, Stoner CJ (2003) The potential for interspecific competition among African carnivores. Biological Conservation 110: 6775.
  • Clutton-Brock TH, Albon SD (1982) Winter mortality in red deer. Journal of Zoology 198: 515520.
  • Conybeare A, Haynes G (1984) Observations on elephant mortality and bones in water holes. Quaternary Research 22: 189200.
  • Cooper SM (1990) The hunting behaviour of spotted hyenas in a region containing both sedentary and migratory prey. African Journal of Ecology 28: 131141.
  • Cooper SM (1991) Optimal hunting group size: the need for lions to defend their kills against loss to spotted hyaenas. African Journal of Ecology 29: 130136.
  • Cooper SM, Holekamp KE, Smale L (1999) A seasonal feast: long-term analysis of feeding behaviour in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). African Journal of Ecology 37: 149160.
  • Cortés-Avizanda A, Selva A, Carrete M, Donázar JA (2009) Effects of carrion resources on herbivore spatial distribution are mediated by facultative scavengers. Basic and Applied Ecology 10: 265372.
  • Coulson T, Catchpole EA, Albon SD, Morgan BJT, Pemberton JM, Clutton-Brock TH, Crawley MJ, Grenfell BT (2001) Age, sex, density, winter weather, and population crashes in Soay sheep. Science 292: 15281531.
  • Crabtree RL, Sheldon JW (1999) The ecological role of coyotes on Yellowstone's northern range. Yellowstone Science 7: 1523.
  • Creel S (2001) Four factors modifying the effect of competition on carnivore population dynamics as illustrated by African wild dogs. Conservation Biology 15: 271274.
  • Creel S, Creel NM (1996) Limitation of wild dogs by competition with larger carnivores. Conservation Biology 10: 526538.
  • Cuesta L, Bárcena F, Palacios F, Reig S (1991) The trophic ecology of the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus Cabrera, 1907). A new analysis of stomach's data. Mammalia 55: 239254.
  • DeVault T, Olson Z, Beasley JC, Rhodes OE (2011) Mesopredators dominate competition for carrion in an agricultural landscape. Basic and Applied Ecology 12: 268274.
  • DeVault TL, Rhodes OE, Shivik JA (2003) Scavenging by vertebrates: behavioural, ecological and evolutionary perspectives on an important energy transfer pathway in terrestrial ecosystems. Oikos 102: 225234.
  • Durant SM (1998) Competition, refuges and coexistence: an example from Serengeti carnivores. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 370386.
  • Durant SM, Croft ME, Hilborn R, Bashir S, Hando J, Thomas L (2011) Long-term trends in carnivore abundance using distance sampling in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 14901500.
  • Fanshawe JH, Fitzgibbon CD (1993) Factors influencing the hunting success of an African wild dog pack. Animal Behaviour 45: 479490.
  • Ferreira SM, Funston PJ (2010) Estimating lion population variables: prey and disease effects in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Wildlife Research 37: 194206.
  • Fitzgibbon CD (1990a) Why do hunting cheetahs prefer male gazelles? Animal Behaviour 40: 837845.
  • Fitzgibbon CD (1990b) Anti-predator behaviour strategies of immature Thomson's gazelles: hiding and the prone response. Animal Behaviour 40: 846855.
  • Fitzgibbon CD, Fanshawe JH (1989) The condition and age of Thomson's gazelles killed by cheetahs and wild dogs. Journal of Zoology 218: 99108.
  • Funston PJ (1999) Predator-prey Relationships Between Lions and Large Ungulates in the Kruger National Park. PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Gasaway WC, Mossestad KJ, Stander PE (1989) Demography of spotted hyenas in an arid savanna, Etosha National Park, South West Africa, Namibia. Madoqua 16: 121127.
  • Gasaway WC, Mossestad KT, Stander PE (1991) Food acquisition by spotted hyaenas in Etosha National Park, Namibia: predation versus scavenging. African Journal of Ecology 29: 6475.
  • Gasaway WC, Boertje RD, Grangaard DV, Kelleyhouse DG, Peterson RO, Larson DG (1992) Predation limiting moose at low densities in Alaska and Yukon and implications for conservation. Wildlife Monographs 120: 359.
  • Gese EM, Grothe S (1995) Analysis of coyote predation on deer and elk during winter in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. American Midland Naturalist 133: 3643.
  • Gese EM, Ruff RL, Crabtree RL (1996) Foraging ecology of coyotes (Canis latrans): the influence of extrinsic factors and a dominance hierarchy. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 769783.
  • Gittleman JL , Funk SM , Macdonald D , Wayne RK (eds; 2001) Carnivore Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Grange S, Owen-Smith N, Gaillard J-M, Druce DJ, Moleón M, Mgobozi M (2012) Changes of population trends and mortality patterns in response to the reintroduction of large predators: the case study of African ungulates. Acta Oecologica 42: 1629.
  • Gustine DD, Parker KL, Lay RJ, Gillingham MP, Heard DC (2006) Calf survival of woodland caribou in a multipredator ecosystem. Wildlife Monographs 165: 132.
  • Hamlin KL, Riley SJ, Pyrah D, Dod AR, Mackie RJ (1984) Relationships among mule deer fawn mortality, coyotes, and alternative prey species during summer. Journal of Wildlife Management 48: 489499.
  • Hanby JP, Bygott JD, Packer C (1995) Ecology, demography, and behavior of lions in two contrasting habitats: Ngorongoro Crater and the Serengeti Plains. In: Sinclair ARE , Arcese P (eds) Serengeti II, 315331. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Haynes G (1982) Utilization and skeletal disturbances of North American prey carcasses. Arctic 35: 266281.
  • Hayward MW (2006) Prey preferences of spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and degree of dietary overlap with the lion (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoology 270: 666614.
  • Hebblewhite M (2005) Predation by wolves interacts with North Pacific Oscillation on a western North American elk population. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 226233.
  • Henschel JR, Skinner JD (1990) The diet of the spotted hyenas in Kruger National Park. African Journal of Ecology 28: 6982.
  • Hofer H, East ML (1993) The commuting system of Serengeti spotted hyaenas: how a predator copes with migratory prey. I. Social organization. Animal Behaviour 46: 547557.
  • Hofer H, East ML (1995) Population dynamics, population size, and the commuting system of Serengeti spotted hyenas. In: Sinclair ARE , Arcese P (eds) Serengeti II, 332363. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Honer OP, Wachter B, East ML, Hofer H (2002) The response of spotted hyenas to long-term changes in prey populations: functional response and interspecific kleptoparasitism. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 236246.
  • Honer OP, Wachter B, East ML, Runyoro VA, Hofer H (2005) The effect of prey abundance and foraging tactics on the population dynamics of a social, terrestrial carnivore, the spotted hyena. Oikos 108: 544554.
  • Houston DC (1974) The role of griffon vultures Gyps africanus and Gyps ruppellii as scavengers. Journal of Zoology 172: 3546.
  • Houston DC (1979) The adaptation of scavengers. In: Sinclair ARE , Norton-Griffiths MN (eds) Serengeti. Dynamics of an Ecosystem, 263286. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Houston DC, Cooper JE (1975) The digestive tract of the white-back griffon vulture and its role in disease transmission among wild ungulates. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 11: 306313.
  • Huegel CN, Rongstad OJ (1985) Winter foraging patterns and consumption rates of northern Wisconsin coyotes. American Midland Naturalist 113: 203207.
  • Huggard DJ (1994) Prey selectivity of wolves in Banff National Park. II. Age, sex and condition of elk. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 140147.
  • Husseman JS, Murray DL, Power G, Mack C, Wenger CR, Quigley H (2003) Assessing differential prey selection between two sympatric large carnivores. Oikos 101: 591601.
  • Inman RM, Nagoin AJ, Persson J, Mattisson J (2012a) The wolverine's niche: linking reproductive chronology, caching, competition and climate. Journal of Mammalogy 93: 634644.
  • Inman RM, Packila ML, Inman KH, McCue AJ, White GC, Persson J et al. (2012b) Spatial ecology of wolverines at the southern periphery of distribution. Journal of Wildlife Management 76: 778792.
  • Jarnemo A, Liberg O, Lockewant S, Olsson A, Wahlstrom K (2004) Predation by red fox on European roe deer fawns in relation to age, sex and birth date. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 416422.
  • Jędrzejewski W, Schmidt K, Milkowski L, Jędrzejewska B, Okarma H (1993) Foraging by lynx and its role in ungulate mortality: the local (Białowieża Forest) and the Palaearctic viewpoints. Acta Theriologica 38: 385403.
  • Jędrzejewski W, Schmidt K, Theuerkauf J, Jędrzejewska B, Selva N, Zub K, Szymura L (2002) Kill rates and predation by wolves on ungulate populations in Białowieża Primeval Forest (Poland). Ecology 83: 13411356.
  • Joubert D (2006) Hunting behaviour of lions on elephants in the Chobe National Park, Botswana. African Journal of Ecology 44: 279281.
  • Karanth U, Sunquist ME (1995) Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests. Journal of Animal Ecology 64: 439450.
  • Keast A (1969) Comparisons of the contemporary mammalian faunas of the southern continents. The Quarterly Review of Biology 44: 121167.
  • Kruuk H (1972) The Spotted Hyena: a Study of Predation and Social Behaviour. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Levi T, Wilmers CC (2012) Wolves-coyotes-foxes: a cascade among carnivores. Ecology 93: 921929.
  • López-González CA, Piña L (2002) Carrion use by jaguars (Panthera onca) in Sonora, Mexico. Mammalia 66: 603605.
  • Mahoney SP, Schaefer JA (2002) Long-term changes in demography and migration of Newfoundland caribou. Journal of Mammalogy 83: 957963.
  • Marshall LG, Webb SD, Sepkowski JJ, Raup DM (1982) Mammalian evolution and the great American interchange. Science 215: 13511357.
  • Mduma SAR, Sinclair ARE, Hilborn R (1999) Food regulates the Serengeti wildebeest: a 40-year record. Journal of Animal Ecology 68: 11011122.
  • Metz MC, Smith DW, Vucetich JA, Stahler DR, Peterson RO (2012) Seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi-prey system of Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Animal Ecology 81: 553563.
  • Mills MG (1990) Kalahari Hyaenas: the Comparative Behavioural Ecology of Two Species. Allen & Unwin, London, UK.
  • Mills MGL, Biggs HC (1993) Prey apportionment and related ecological relationships between large carnivores and prey in the Kruger National Park. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 65: 253268.
  • Mills MGL, Funston P (2003) Large carnivores and savannah heterogeneity. In: du Toit JT , Biggs HC , Rogers KH (eds) The Kruger Experience: Ecology and Management of Savanna Heterogeneity, 370388. Island Press, Washington DC, USA.
  • Mills MGL, Gorman ML (1997) Factors affecting the density and distribution of wild dogs in the Kruger National Park. Conservation Biology 11: 13971406.
  • Mills MGL, Shenk TM (1992) Predator-prey relationships: the impact of lion predation on wildebeest and zebra populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 61: 693702.
  • Mills MGL, Juritz JM, Zucchini W (2001) Estimating the size of spotted hyaena populations through playback recordings allowing for non-response. Animal Conservation 4: 335344.
  • Mills MGL, Broomhall IS, du Toit JT (2004) Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus feeding ecology in the Kruger National Park and a comparison across African savanna habitats: is the cheetah only a successful hunter on open grass plains? Wildlife Biology 10: 177186.
  • Molinari-Jobin A, Molinari P, Loison A, Gaillard J-M, Brestenmoser V (2004) Life cycle period and activity of prey influence their susceptibility to predators. Ecography 27: 323329.
  • Nellis CH, Keith LB (1976) Population dynamics of coyotes in central Alberta, 1964–68. Journal of Wildlife Management 40: 389399.
  • Owen-Smith N (1988) Megaherbivores. The Influence of Very Large Body Size on Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Owen-Smith N (2002) Adaptive Herbivore Ecology. From Resources to Populations in Variable Environments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Owen-Smith N (2008) Changing vulnerability to predation related to season and sex in an African ungulate assemblage: how additive is predation? Oikos 117: 602610.
  • Owen-Smith N, Mason DR (2005) Comparative changes in adult vs juvenile survival affecting population trends of African ungulates. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 762773.
  • Owen-Smith N, Mills MGL (2008) Predator-prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 173183.
  • Owen-Smith N, Mason DR, Ogutu JO (2005) Correlates of survival rates for ten African ungulate populations: density, rainfall and predation. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 774788.
  • Packer C, Pusey AE, Rowley H (1991) Case study of a population bottleneck: lions of the Ngorongoro Crater. Conservation Biology 5: 219230.
  • Packer C, Hilborn R, Mosser A, Kissui B, Borner M, Hopcraft G, Wilmshurst J, Mduma S, Sinclair ARE (2005) Ecological change, group territoriality, and population dynamics in Serengeti lions. Science 307: 390393.
  • Palomares F, Caro TM (1999) Interspecific killing among mammalian carnivores. The American Naturalist 153: 492508.
  • Paquet P (1992) Prey use strategies of sympatric wolves and coyotes in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitola. Journal of Mammalogy 73: 337343.
  • Patterson BR, Benjamin LK, Messier F (1998) Prey switching and feeding habits of the eastern coyote in relation to white-tailed deer and hare densities. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 18851897.
  • Peterson RO, Page RE (1988) The rise and fall of Isle Royale wolves 1975–1986. Journal of Mammalogy 69: 8999.
  • Pienaar UdeV (1969) Predator-prey relationships amongst the larger mammals of the Kruger National Park. Koedoe 12: 108176.
  • Pole A, Gordon IJ, Gorman ML, Macaskill M (2004) Prey selection by African wild dogs in southern Zimbabwe. Journal of Zoology 262: 207215.
  • Post E, Peterson RO, Stenseth NC, McLaren BE (1999) Ecosystem consequences of wolf behavioural responses to climate. Nature 401: 905907.
  • Prugh L (2005) Coyote prey selection and community stability during a decline in food supply. Oikos 110: 253264.
  • Ruxton GD, Houston DC (2004) Obligate vertebrate scavengers must be large soaring fliers. Journal of Theoretical Biology 228: 431436.
  • Sala E (2006) Top predators provide insurance against climate change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 479480.
  • Schaller GB (1972) The Serengeti Lion: a Study of Predator Prey Relations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Selva N, Jędrzejewska B, Jędrzejewski W, Wajrak A (2003) Scavenging on European bison carcasses in Białowieża Primeval Forest (eastern Poland). Ecoscience 10: 303311.
  • Selva N, Jędrzejewska B, Jędrzejewski W, Wajrak A (2005) Factors affecting carcass use by a guild of scavengers in European temperate woodland. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83: 15901601.
  • Sinclair ARE, Arcese P (1995) Population consequences of predation-sensitive foraging. Ecology 76: 882891.
  • Sinclair ARE, Mduma S, Brashares JS (2003) Patterns of predation in a diverse predator-prey system. Nature 425: 288290.
  • Skinner JD, Chimimba CT (2005) The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Śmietana W, Klimek A (1993) Diet of wolves in the Bieszczady Mountains, Poland. Acta Theriologica 38: 245251.
  • Smith DW, Peterson RO, Houston DB (2003) Yellowstone after wolves. BioScience 53: 330340.
  • Smuts GL (1978) Interrelations between predators, prey, and their environment. BioScience 28: 316320.
  • Stander PE (1992) Foraging dynamics of lions in a semi-arid environment. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70: 821.
  • Steinmetz J, Soluk DA, Kohler SL (2008) Facilitation between herons and smallmouth bass foraging on common prey. Environmental Biology of Fishes 81: 5161.
  • Swenson JE, Dahle B, Busk H, Opseth O, Johansen T, Söderberg A, Walin K, Cederlund G (2007) Predation on moose by European brown bears. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 19931997.
  • Tveraa T, Fauchald P, Henaug C, Yoccoz NG (2003) An examination of a compensatory relationship between food limitation and predation in semi-domestic reindeer. Oecologia 137: 370376.
  • Valdmann H, Andersone-Lilley Z, Koppa O, Ozolins J, Bagrade G (2005) Winter diets of wolf Canis lupus and lynx Lynx lynx in Estonia and Latvia. Acta Theriologica 50: 521527.
  • Van Dijk J, Gustavsen L, Mysterud A, May R, Flagstad O, Broseth H, Andersen R, Anderson R, Steen H, London A (2008) Diet shift of a facultative scavenger, the wolverine following recolonisation of wolves. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 11831190.
  • Watts PD, Jonkel C (1988) Energetic cost of winter dormancy in grizzly bear. Journal of Wildlife Management 177: 193208.
  • Webb SD (1977) A history of savanna vertebrates in the New World. Part II: South America and the great interchange. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9: 393426.
  • Wilmers CC, Getz WM (2004) Simulating the effects of wolf-elk population dynamics on resource flow to scavengers. Ecological Modelling 177: 193208.
  • Wilmers CC, Getz WM (2005) Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone. PLoS Biology 3: 571576.
  • Wilmers CC, Post E (2006) Predicting the influence of wolf-provided carrion on scavenger community dynamics under climate change scenarios. Global Change Biology 12: 403409.
  • Wilmers CC, Stahler DR, Crabtree RL, Smith D, Getz WM (2003) Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf and hunter-killed carcasses in Greater Yellowstone, USA. Ecology Letters 6: 9961003.
  • Wilson EE, Wolkovich EM (2011) Scavenging: how carnivore and carrion structure communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 129135.