Hypervelocity impacts on dry and wet sandstone: Observations of ejecta dynamics and crater growth


Corresponding author. E-mail: tobias.hoerth@emi.fraunhofer.de


Abstract– This study deals with the investigation of highly dynamic processes associated with hypervelocity impacts on porous sandstone. For the impact experiments, two light-gas accelerators with different calibers were used, capable of accelerating steel projectiles with diameters ranging from 2.5 to 12 mm to several kilometers per second. The projectiles impacted on dry and water-saturated Seeberger Sandstone targets. The study includes investigations of the influence of pore water on the shape of the ejecta cloud as well as transient crater growth. The results show a significant influence of pore water on ejecta behavior. Steeper ejecta cone angles are observed if the impacts are conducted on wet sandstones. The transient crater grows at a faster rate and reaches a larger diameter if the target is water saturated. In our experiments, target porosity leads to smaller crater sizes compared with nonporous targets. Water within the pore space reduces porosity and counteracts this process. Power law fits were applied to the crater growth curves. The results show an increase in the scaling exponent μ with increasing pore space saturation.