Weakly shocked and deformed CM microxenoliths in the Pułtusk H chondrite



The Pułtusk meteorite is a brecciated H4–5 chondrite cut by darkened cataclastic zones. Within the breccia, relict type IA, IB, and IIA chondrules, and microxenoliths of carbonaceous CM chondrite lithology occur. This is the first description of foreign clasts in the Pułtusk meteorite. The matrix of the xenoliths was identified by usage of microprobe and Raman spectroscopic analyses. Raman spectra show distinct bands related to the presence of slightly ordered carbonaceous matter at approximately 1320 and 1580–1584 cm−1. Bands related to serpentine group minerals are also visible, especially a peak at 692 cm−1 and moreover other weak bands are interpreted as evidence for tochilinite. We decipher the metamorphic and deformational history of the xenoliths. They experienced aqueous alteration before being incorporated into the unaltered and well-equilibrated parent rock of the Pułtusk chondrite. The xenoliths are weakly shocked as indicated by defects in the crystal structure of silicates and carbonates, but hydrated minerals (serpentine and tochilinite) are still present in the matrix. The carbonaceous matter within the clasts' matrix displays first order D and G Raman bands that suggests it is only slightly ordered as a result of mild thermal processing. Distinct shear bands are present in both the xenoliths and the surrounding rock, which testifies that the xenoliths were affected by a deformational event along with host rock. The host rock was brittly deformed, but the clasts experienced more ductile deformation revealed by semibrittle faulting of minerals, kinking of the tochilinite-cronstedtite matrix, and injections of xenolithic material into the adjacent breccia. We argue that both processes, the high strain-rate shear deformation and the incorporation of the xenoliths into the host Pułtusk breccia, could have been impact-related. The Pułtusk xenoliths are, thus, rather spalled collisional fragments, than trapped fossil micrometeorites.