Appendix S1 (a) Map of sampling locations of Lobaria pulmonaria. (b) Information on sampled populations of Lobaria pulmonaria.

Appendix S2 Microsatellite analysis: (a) primer sequences (Walser et al. 2003, 2004; Widmer et al. 2010; Dal Grande et al. 2012; this study), labelling, primer concentrations and (b, c) PCR conditions for genetic analysis of Lobaria pulmonaria.

Appendix S3 Sequencing of microsatellite locus LPu09: (a) primer sequences and (b, c) PCR conditions and sequencing details for genetic analysis of Lobaria pulmonaria.

Appendix S4 Eight European regions in which populations of Lobaria pulmonaria were sampled (1: Iberian peninsula, 2: Italy, 3: Balkans, 4: South of the Alps, 5: North of the Alps, 6: Great Britain, 7: Scandinavia, 8: Urals).

Appendix S5 Sequences of fungal LPu09 alleles covering the allele range from 173 to 659 bp with emphasis on long, geographically restricted alleles occurring in the Ural Mountains.

Appendix S6 Centroid analysis of Lobaria pulmonaria: information on geographically restricted alleles in the fungal (a) and the algal (b) symbiont.

Appendix S7 Density distribution of centroids of geographically restricted alleles for the fungal (F; without locus LPu09) and the algal (A) symbionts of Lobaria pulmonaria.

Appendix S8 Spatial distribution analysis of shared alleles for the fungal (a) and algal (b) symbiont of Lobaria pulmonaria.

Appendix S9 Overall distance distribution of geographically restricted alleles for each fungal (a) and algal (b) microsatellite marker.

Appendix S10 Mean geographic distance between single fungal (a) and algal (b) geographically restricted alleles with centroids in the South Italy–Balkans region.

Appendix S11 Plot of the Procrustes analysis for populations of L. pulmonaria. Loadings for genetic variables (1: algal microsatellites, 2: fungal microsatellites), eigenvalues scree plot, scores of samples for the two data sets, and projection of these two sets after rotation (arrows link the algal multilocus genotype score to the fungal multilocus genotype score for the same populations) are shown.

Appendix S12 Population graphs with 139 nodes (populations) and 1114 edges for the fungal (a) and 1310 edges for the algal (b) symbiont of L. pulmonaria and its intersection resulting in a congruence graph (c).

Appendix S13 Mean number of distinct fungal (a) and algal (b) alleles per locus as a function of standardized sample size for eight major European regions.

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