The relationship between variable host grouping and functional responses among parasitoids of Antispila nysaefoliella (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae)
Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Volume 21, Issue 23, pages 5892–5904, December 2012
How to Cite
Low, C., Scheffer, S. J., Lewis, M. L. and Gates, M. W. (2012), The relationship between variable host grouping and functional responses among parasitoids of Antispila nysaefoliella (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae). Molecular Ecology, 21: 5892–5904. doi: 10.1111/mec.12061
- Issue published online: 21 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 20 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 27 DEC 2011
- U.S. National Science Foundation Grants. Grant Numbers: DBI-0904395, DEB-0608392
Table S1 Significance values of differences in mine sizes attacked between clades tested using Bonferroni method of multiple comparisons.
Table S2 List of sequences from parasitoid adults either reared from A. nysaefoliella or caught directly from the field, and from the host, A. nysaefoliella.
Fig. S1 Leaves of Nyssa sylvatica. Panel (A) shows 14 larger mines (‘a’) and 12 smaller mines (‘b’). The set of smaller mines represent a second larval cohort. Within the open space of each mine, you can see a single larva. The darker portion at the ‘base’ of each mine is the accumulation of frass, which traces from a leaf vein marking the mine's origin. In (B), two leaves are shown; each with a single completed mine with a distinctive punch hole (at ‘s’) left behind after the larva created a shield and exited the leaf for pupation in the litter.
Fig. S2 These are estimates of per capita mortality risk due to: (A) parasitism, (B) predation, and (C) unknown causes. Leaves were sampled in 2001, 2002, and 2004. In 2001 and 2004, leaves were also sampled nondestructively in which marked leaves were left intact on trees and larvae were monitored over their lifetime. The nondestructive samples are noted as ‘2001.1’ and ‘2004.1’. In total, 5374 larvae were sampled.
Fig. S3 Distribution of samples by tree and sample date (A) and larval group size (B), expressed as the proportions of the total sample of 215 leaves.
Fig. S4 Distribution of mine sizes of parasitized larvae (solid symbols) and unparasitized larvae (open symbols) for each sample date. Data for each date are offset for visual clarity. Triangles symbolize larvae from the first cohort, and circles symbolize the second cohort. (The means are reported in the main text in Fig. 3.For more details on the temporal delay in A. nysaefoliella, see Low 2010.)
Fig. S5 A total of 1524 larvae from 250 leaves were screened for parasitism. This resulted in 144 identified parasitisms, or 9.5%. The bars represent the percentage of larvae that were parasitized by each clade per sample date. The legend symbols are ranked in order of most to least prevalent among parasitoid clades. The numbers above each bar are the number of larvae/number of leaves. Sampling occurred from 3 Aug (day 215) to 16 Sep 2006 (day 259).
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