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Table S1 Statistical tests of genotype by environment interactions (G × E) for timing of bud flush and bud set in the Fairbanks and Indian Head gardens.

Table S2 Hierarchical F statistics for each of the SNPs identified in association mapping studies reprinted from Keller et al. (2012).

Fig. S1 P-P plots for the association analyses of bud flush and bud set in Populus balsamifera measured in two different common gardens (Fairbanks, AK, and Indian Head, SK) and using SPAGeDi (Hardy & Vekemans 2002) to calculate the A matrix.

Fig. S2 P-P plots for the association analyses of bud flush and bud set in Populus balsamifera measured in two different common gardens (Fairbanks, AK, and Indian Head, SK) and using EMMA (Kang et al. 2010) to calculate the A matrix.

Fig. S3 Trait distributions in the Fairbanks (blue) and Indian Head (red) gardens.

Fig. S4 Phenological patterns exhibited by genotypes in the Fairbanks (blue) and Indian Head gardens (red) plotted on a scale of Julian date and latitude of origin.

Fig. S5 Heat maps showing linkage disequilibrium (r2) between loci within genes identified as associated with A) bud flush in the Fairbanks garden, (B) bud set in the Indian Head garden and (C) bud set in the Fairbanks garden.

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