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Keywords:

  • genomic cline;
  • hybrid zone;
  • Manacus ;
  • next-generation sequencing;
  • population genomics;
  • speciation

Abstract

The processes of adaptation and speciation are expected to shape genomic variation within and between diverging species. Here we analyze genomic heterogeneity of genetic differentiation and introgression in a hybrid zone between two bird species (Manacus candei and M. vitellinus) using 59 100 SNPs, a whole genome assembly, and Bayesian models. Measures of genetic differentiation (inline image) and introgression (genomic cline center [α] and rate [β]) were highly heterogeneous among loci. We identified thousands of loci with elevated parameter estimates, some of which are likely to be associated with variation in fitness in Manacus populations. To analyze the genomic organization of differentiation and introgression, we mapped SNPs onto a draft assembly of the M. vitellinus genome. Estimates of inline image, α, and β were autocorrelated at very short physical distances (< 100 bp), but much less so beyond this. In addition, average statistical associations (linkage disequilibrium) between SNPs were generally low and were not higher in admixed populations than in populations of the parental species. Although they did not occur with a constant probability across the genome, loci with elevated inline image, α, and β were not strongly co-localized in the genome. Contrary to verbal models that predict clustering of loci involved in adaptation and isolation in discrete genomic regions, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that genetic regions involved in adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation are scattered throughout the genome. We also found that many loci were characterized by both exceptional genetic differentiation and introgression, consistent with the hypothesis that loci involved in isolation are also often characterized by a history of divergent selection. However, the concordance between isolation and differentiation was only partial, indicating a complex architecture and history of loci involved in isolation.