Fig. S1 Bayesian phylogenetic tree constructed in Mr. Bayes based on mtDNA d-loop sequence.

Fig. S2 Principal coordinate analysis of 21 microsatellite loci.

Fig. S3 Posterior density distributions of the main model.

Fig. S4 Root mean squared error (RMSE) plots of partial least squared components for each parameter inferred in the main demographic model.

Fig. S5 Distributions of the posterior quantiles for the parameters inferred in the main model of the ABC analysis.

Fig. S6 Posterior density distributions of variation 1 model.

Fig. S7 Posterior density distributions of variation 2 model.

Table S1 European samples included in the study.

Table S2 Genetic marker characteristics, primers, and reference sequence location.

Table S3 Summary statistics and partial least squared components calculated in the approximate Bayesian computation analysis.

Table S4 Microsatellite population genetic measures per locus per population.

Table S5 Microsatellite allele frequencies per locus per country.

Table S6 Structure group membership of European populations for K = 5.

Table S7 Structure group membership of Gough Island with European populations set as known.

Table S8 Posterior distribution characteristics for model variations in the ABC analysis.

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