Extant variation in temperate and boreal plant species has been influenced by both demographic histories associated with Pleistocene glacial cycles and adaptation to local climate. We used sequence capture to investigate the role of these neutral and adaptive processes in shaping diversity in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Nucleotide diversity and Tajima's D were lowest at replacement sites and highest at intergenic sites, while LD showed the opposite pattern. With samples grouped into three populations arrayed latitudinally, effective population size was highest in the north, followed by south and centre, and LD was highest in the south followed by the north and centre, suggesting a possible northern glacial refuge. FST outlier analysis revealed that promoter, 5′-UTR and intronic sites were enriched for outliers compared with coding regions, while no outliers were found among intergenic sites. Codon usage bias was evident, and genes with synonymous outliers had 30% higher average expression compared with genes containing replacement outliers. These results suggest divergent selection related to regulation of gene expression is important to local adaptation in P. trichocarpa. Finally, within-population selective sweeps were much more pronounced in the central population than in putative northern and southern refugia, which may reflect the different demographic histories of the populations and concomitant effects on signatures of genetic hitchhiking from standing variation.
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