• 1
    Maynard DW, Heritage J. Conversation analysis, doctor–patient interaction and medical communication. Med Educ2005;39:42835.
  • 2
    Goodyear-Smith F, Buetow S. Power issues in the doctor–patient relationship. Health Care Anal2001;9:44962.
  • 3
    Delbanco TL. Enriching the doctor–patient relationship by inviting the patient’s perspective. Ann Intern Med1992;116 (5):4148.
  • 4
    Bellón JA, Delgado-Sanchez A, de Dios Luna J. Patient psychosocial factors and primary care consultation: a cohort study. Fam Pract2007;24 (6):5629.
  • 5
    Marvel MK. Involvement with the psychosocial concerns of patients. Arch Fam Med1993;2 (6):62933.
  • 6
    Ferguson WJ, Candib LM. Culture, language and the doctor–patient relationship. Fam Med2002;34 (5):35361.
  • 7
    Hojat M, Mangione S, Nasca TJ. Empathy scores in medical school and ratings of empathic behaviour in residency training 3 years later. J Soc Psychol2005;145 (6):66372.
  • 8
    Hojat M, Vergare MJ, Maxwell K, Brainard G, Herrine SK, Isenberg GA, Veloski J, Gonnella JS. The devil is in the third year: a longitudinal study of erosion of empathy in medical school. Acad Med2009;84 (9):118291.
  • 9
    Newton BW, Barber L, Clardy J, Cleveland E, O’Sullivan P. Is there hardening of the heart during medical school?Acad Med2008;83 (3):2449.
  • 10
    Turner JA, Deyo RA, Loeser JD, Von Korff M, Fordyce WE. The importance of placebo effects in pain treatment and research. JAMA1994;271:160914.
  • 11
    Roter D. The enduring and evolving nature of the patient–physician relationship. Patient Educ Couns2000;39:515.
  • 12
    Blasi ZD, Harkness E, Ernst E, Georgious A, Kleijnen J. Influence of context effects on health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet2001;357:75762.
  • 13
    Benbassat J, Pilpel D, Tidhar M. Patients’ preferences for participation in clinical decision making: a review of published surveys. Behav Med1998;24 (2):818.
  • 14
    Kaptchuk TJ. The placebo effect in alternative medicine: can the performance healing ritual have clinical significance?Ann Intern Med2002;136:81725.
  • 15
    Haigh Smith C, Armstrong D. Comparison of criteria derived by government and patients for evaluating general practitioner services. BMJ1989;299:4946.
  • 16
    Calnan M, Katsouyiannopoulos V, Ovcharov VK, Prokhorskas R, Ramic H, Willims S. Major determinants of consumer satisfaction with primary care in different health systems. Fam Pract1994;11 (4):46878.
  • 17
    Beckman HB, Markakis K, Suchman AL, Frankel RM. The doctor–patient relationship and malpractice. Arch Intern Med1994;154 (12):136570.
  • 18
    DiMatteo RM. Social support and patient adherence to medical treatment: a meta-analysis. Health Psychol2004;23:20718.
  • 19
    DiMatteo RM, Reiter RC, Gambone JC. Enhancing medication adherence through communication and informed collaborative choice. Health Commun1994;6 (4):25365.
  • 20
    Nebel E. Malpractice: love thy patient. Clin Orthop Relat Res2003;407:1924.
  • 21
    Tamblyn R, Abrahamowicz M, Dauphinee D et al. Physician scores on a national clinical skills examination as predictors of complaints to medical regulatory authorities. JAMA2007;298 (9):9931001.
  • 22
    DiMatteo RM. The physician–patient relationship: effects on the quality of health care. Clin Obstet Gynecol1994;37 (1):14961.
  • 23
    House JS, Landis KR, Umberson D. Social relationships and health. Science1988;241:5405.
  • 24
    Barnett PA, Gotlib IH. Dysfunctional attitudes and psychosocial stress – the differential prediction of future psychological symptomatology. Motiv Emot1988;12:25170.
  • 25
    Cassel J. The contribution of social environment to host resistance. Am J Epidemiol1976;104:10723.
  • 26
    Cobb S. Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosom Med1976;38:30014.
  • 27
    Cohen S, Wills TA. Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychol Bull1985;98:31057.
  • 28
    Kamarck TW, Manuck SB, Jennings JR. Social support reduces cardiovascular reactivity to psychological challenge – a laboratory model. Psychosom Med1990;52:4258.
  • 29
    Uchino BN. Understanding the links between social support and physical health: a life-span perspective with emphasis on the separability of perceived and received support. Perspect Psychol Sci2009;4:23655.
    Direct Link:
  • 30
    Holt-Lunstad J, Smith TB, Bradley Layton J. Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review. PLoS Med2010;7 (7):e1000316.
  • 31
    Brody H. The doctor as therapeutic agent: a placebo effect research agenda. In: Harrington A, ed. The Placebo Effect: An Interdisciplinary Exploration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1999;7792.
  • 32
    Novack DH. Therapeutic aspects of the clinical encounter. J Gen Intern Med1987;2:34655.
  • 33
    Burlingame GM, Fuhriman A, Johnson JE. Cohesion in group therapy. In: Norcross JC, ed. Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2002;7187.
  • 34
    Hovarth AE, Bedi RP. The alliance. In: Norcross JC, ed. Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2002;3769.
  • 35
    Lambert MJ, Barley DE. Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. In: Norcross JC, ed. Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2002;1732.
  • 36
    Norcross JC. Empirically supported therapy relationships. In: Norcross JC, ed. Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2002;316.
  • 37
    Steering Committee, American Psychological Association. Empirically supported therapy relationships: conclusions and recommendations of the division 29 task force. In: Norcross JC, ed. Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2002;4413.
  • 38
    Speedling EJ, Rose DN. Building an effective doctor–patient relationship: from patient satisfaction to patient participation. Soc Sci Med1985;21 (2):11520.
  • 39
    Williams SJ, Calnan M. Key determinants of consumer satisfaction with general practice. Fam Pract1991;8:23742.
  • 40
    Rees Lewis J. Patient views on quality of care in general practice: a literature review. Soc Sci Med1994;39 (5):65570.
  • 41
    Stevenson FA, Barry CA, Britten N, Barber N, Bradley CP. Doctor–patient communication about drugs: the evidence for shared decision making. Soc Sci Med2000;50 (6):82940.
  • 42
    Beisecker AE. Ageing and desire for information and input in medical decisions: patient consumerism in medical encounters. Gerontologist1988;28:33055.
  • 43
    Thompson SC, Pitts JS, Schwankovsky L. Preferences for involvement in medical decision making: situational and demographic influences. Patient Educ Couns1993;22:13340.
  • 44
    Vick S, Scott A. Agency in health care. Examining patients’ preferences for attributes of the doctor–patient relationship. J Health Econ1998;17:587605.
  • 45
    Waitzkin H. Information giving in medical care. J Health Soc Behav1985;26:81101.
  • 46
    Weisman CS. Communication between women and their health care providers: research findings and unanswered questions. Public Health Rep1987;1987 (4 Suppl):14751.
  • 47
    Boulton M, Tuckett D, Olson C, Wiliams A. Social class and the general practice consultation. Sociol Health Illn1986;8:32551.
  • 48
    Arora N, McHorney CA. Patient preferences for medical decision making: who really wants to participate?Med Care2000;38 (3):33541.
  • 49
    DiMatteo RM, Prince IM, Taranta A. Patients’ perceptions of physicians’ behaviour: determinants of patient commitment to the therapeutic relationship. J Community Health1979;4:28090.
  • 50
    Magee M, D’Antonio M. The Best Medicine. New York, NY: St Martin’s Press 1999.
  • 51
    Hassol A, Walker JA, Kidder D, Rokita K, Young D, Pierdon DD, Kuck S, Ortiz E. Patient experiences and attitudes about access to a patient electronic health care record and linked web messaging. J Am Med Inform Assoc2004;11:50513.
  • 52
    Kearley KE, Freeman GK, Heath A. An exploration of the value of the personal doctor–patient relationship in general practice. Br J Gen Pract2001;51:7128.
  • 53
    Bayer R, Oppenheimer GM. Pioneers in AIDS care – reflections on the epidemic’s early years. N Engl J Med2006;355:22735.
  • 54
    Horowitz CR, Suchman AL, Branch WT, Frankel RM. What do doctors find meaningful about their work?Ann Intern Med2003;138:7725.
  • 55
    Kasman DL, Fryer-Edwards K, Braddock CH. Education for professionalism: trainees’ emotional experiences on IM and paediatrics in-patient wards. Acad Med2003;78 (7):73041.
  • 56
    Légaré F, Ratté S, Gravel K, Graham ID. Barriers and facilitators to implementing shared decision making in clinical practice: update of a systematic review of health professionals’ perceptions. Patient Educ Couns2008;73 (3):52635.
  • 57
    Hamann J, Cohen R, Leucht S, Busch R, Kissling W. Shared decision making and long-term outcome in schizophrenia treatment. J Clin Psychiatry2007;68:9927.
  • 58
    Seale C, Chaplin R, Lelliott P, Quirk A. Sharing decisions in consultations involving antipsychotic medication: a qualitative study of psychiatrists’ experiences. Soc Sci Med2006;62:286173.
  • 59
    Nogueira-Martins MCF, Nogueira-Martins LA, Turato ER. Medical students’ perceptions of their learning about the doctor–patient relationship: a qualitative study. Med Educ2006;40:3228.
  • 60
    Williams C, Cantillon P, Cochrane M. The doctor–patient relationship: from undergraduate assumptions to pre-registration reality. Med Educ2001;35:7437.
  • 61
    Potter SJ, McKinlay JB. From a relationship to encounter: an examination of longitudinal and lateral dimensions in the doctor–patient relationship. Soc Sci Med2005;61:46579.
  • 62
    Bruera E, Sweeney C, Calder K, Palmer L, Benisch-Tolley S. Patient preferences versus physician perceptions of treatment decisions in cancer care. J Clin Oncol2001;19 (11):28835.
  • 63
    Davis DA, Mazmanian PE, Fordis M, Van Harrison R, Thorpe KE, Perrier L. Accuracy of physician self-assessment compared with observed measures of competence: a systematic review. JAMA2006;296 (9):1094102.
  • 64
    Anderson LA, Zimmerman MA. Patient and physician perceptions of their relationship and patient satisfaction: a study of chronic disease management. Patient Educ Couns1993;20 (1):2736.
  • 65
    Weng HC. Does the physician’s emotional intelligence matter? Impacts of the physician’s emotional intelligence on the trust, patient–physician relationship, and satisfaction. Health Care Manage Rev2008;33 (4):2808.
  • 66
    Murphy-Cullen CL, Larsen LC. Interaction between socio-demographic variables of physicians and their patients: its impact upon patient satisfaction. Soc Sci Med1984;19 (2):1636.
  • 67
    Fiske AP, Haslam N. Prerequisites for satisfactory relationships. In: Meyer L, Grenot-Scheyer M, Harry B, Park HS, Schwartz I, eds. Making Friends: The Influences of Culture and Development. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brooks 1998;38592.
  • 68
    Fiske AP, Haslam N. The four basic social bonds: structures for coordinating interaction. In: Baldwin M, ed. Interpersonal Cognition. New York, NY: Guilford Press 2005;26798.
  • 69
    Barry CA, Stevenson FA, Britten N, Barber N, Bradley C. Giving voice to the lifeworld: more humane, more effective medical care? A qualitative study of doctor–patient communication in general practice. Soc Sci Med2001;53:487505.
  • 70
    Mishler EG. The Discourse of Medicine. The Dialectics of Medical Interviews. Norwood, NJ: Ablex 1984.
  • 71
    Krupat E, Yeager CM, Putman S. Patient role orientations, doctor–patient fit, and visit satisfaction. Psychol Health2000;15 (5):70719.
  • 72
    Heritage J, Robinson JD. The structure of patients’ presenting concerns: physicians’ opening questions. Health Commun2006;19 (2):89102.
  • 73
    Robinson JD, Heritage J. Physicians’ opening questions and patients’ satisfaction. Patient Educ Couns2006;60:27985.
  • 74
    Beckman HB, Frankel RM. The effect of physician behaviour on the collection of data. Ann Intern Med1984;101:6926.
  • 75
    Roter D, Hall J. Doctors Talking with Patients/Patients Talking with Doctors: Improving Communication in Medical Visits, 2nd edn. Westport, CT: Praeger 2006;114–15.
  • 76
    Heritage J, Robinson JD, Elliot MN, Beckett M, Wilkes M. Reducing patients’ unmet concerns in primary care: the difference one word can make. J Gen Intern Med2007;22 (10):142933.
  • 77
    Goodwin C. Restarts, pauses, and the achievement of mutual gaze at turn-beginning. Sociol Inq1980;50:272302.
  • 78
    Goodwin C. Conversational Organization: Interaction between Speaker and Hearers. New York, NY: Academic Press 1981.
  • 79
    Robinson JD. Getting down to business: talk, gaze and body orientation during openings of doctor–patient consultations. Health Commun Res1998;25:97123.
  • 80
    Heath C. Body Movement and Speech in Medical Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1986;60–70.
  • 81
    Ruusuvuori J. Looking means listening: coordinating displays of engagement in doctor–patient interaction. Soc Sci Med2001;52:1093108.
  • 82
    McKinlay JB, Marceau LD. The end of the golden age of doctoring. Int J Health Serv2002;32 (2):379416.
  • 83
    Chew-Graham CA, May CR, Roland MO. The harmful consequences of elevating the doctor–patient relationship to be a primary goal of the general practice consultation. Fam Pract2004;21 (3):22931.
  • 84
    McKinlay JB, Stoeckle JD. Corporatisation and the social transformation of doctoring. Int J Health Serv1998;18:191205.
  • 85
    Fiscella K, Epstein RM. So much to do, so little time: care for the socially disadvantaged and the 15-minute visit. Arch Intern Med2008;168 (17):184352.
  • 86
    Broom A. Medical specialists’ accounts of the impact of the Internet on the doctor/patient relationship. Health2005;9:31938.
  • 87
    Murray E, Lo B, Pollack L, Donelan K, Lee K. Direct-to-consumer advertising: physicians’ views of its effects on quality of care and the doctor–patient relationship. J Am Board Fam Med2003;6:51324.