Rorqual whale (Balaenopteridae) surface lunge-feeding behaviors: Standardized classification, repertoire diversity, and evolutionary analyses



Rorqual whales (Family: Balaenopteridae) are the world's largest predators and sometimes feed near or at the sea surface on small schooling prey. Most rorquals capture prey using a behavioral process known as lunge-feeding that, when occurring at the surface, often exposes the mouth and head above the water. New technology has recently improved historical misconceptions about the natural variation in rorqual lunge-feeding behavior yet missing from the literature is a dedicated study of the identification, use, and evolution of these behaviors when used to capture prey at the surface. Here we present results from a long-term investigation of three rorqual whale species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata; fin whale, B. physalus; and blue whale, B. musculus) that helped us develop a standardized classification system of surface lunge-feeding (SLF) behaviors. We then tested for differences in frequency of these behaviors among the three species and across all rorqual species. Our results: (1) propose a unified classification system of six homologous SLF behaviors used by all living rorqual whale species; (2) demonstrate statistically significant differences in the frequency of each behavior by minke, fin, and blue whales; and (3) provide new information regarding the evolution of lunge-feeding behaviors among rorqual whales.