Natural and human effects on harbor seal abundance and spatial distribution in an Alaskan glacial fjord
Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2014
Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Marine Mammal Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Marine Mammalogy
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Marine Mammal Science
Volume 31, Issue 1, pages 66–89, January 2015
How to Cite
Jansen, J. K., Boveng, P. L., Ver Hoef, J. M., Dahle, S. P. and Bengtson, J. L. (2015), Natural and human effects on harbor seal abundance and spatial distribution in an Alaskan glacial fjord. Marine Mammal Science, 31: 66–89. doi: 10.1111/mms.12140
- Issue online: 22 DEC 2014
- Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 13 SEP 2013
- NorthWest CruiseShip Association
- Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development. 1993. Alaska Visitor Statistics Program, AVSP. Alaska Visitor Arrivals, Summer 1993. Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, Division of Tourism. 135 pp.
- Alaska Department of Community and Economic Development. 2004. Alaska Economic Performance Report 2003. Alaska Department of Community and Economic Development, Division of Community Advocacy. 64 pp.
- Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. 2004. Assessment of cruise ship and ferry wastewater impacts in Alaska. Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. Commercial Passenger Vessel Compliance Program. 62 pp.
- 1984. The effect of disturbance on harbor seal haul out patterns at Bolinas Lagoon, California. Fishery Bulletin 82:493–500. , , and .
- 1988. Herd segregation in harbor seals at Point Reyes, California. California Fish and Game 74:55–59. , and .
- 2012. Behavioural responses of harbour seals to human-induced disturbances. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22:113–121. , , , and .
- 2012. Oceanographic gradients and seabird prey community dynamics in glacial fjords. Fisheries Oceanography 21:148–169. , , , and .
- 1986. Metabolic and hormonal correlates of molting and regeneration of pelage in Alaskan harbor and spotted seals (Phoca vitulina and Phoca largha). Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:1086–1094. , and .
- 2002. Generalized additive modelling and zero inflated count data. Ecological Modelling 157:179–188. , and .
- 1949. A census of harbor seals in San Francisco Bay. Journal of Mammalogy 30:34–35. .
- 1985. Six years of harbor seal censusing at Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. Murrelet 66:44–49.
- 2006. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance. Conservation Biology 20:1791–1798. , , , et al.
- 2007. Comparison of survey methods for estimating abundance of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in glacial fjords. Fishery Bulletin 105:348–355. , , and .
- 1974. Spatial interaction and statistical analysis of lattice systems. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 36:192–236.
- 2011. Use of glacial and terrestrial habitats by harbor seals in Glacier Bay, Alaska: Costs and benefits. Marine Ecology Progress Series 429:277–290. , , , , and .
- 1995. Theoretical heat flux in water and habitat selection of phocid seals and beluga whales during the annual molt. Journal of Theoretical Biology 172:235–244.
- 1994. Evidence of a maternal foraging cycle resembling that of otariid seals in a small phocid, the harbor seal. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 34:95–104. , and .
- 2003. The abundance of harbor seals in the Gulf of Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 19:111–127. , , , , , and .
- 1992. Mass and energy transfer during lactation in a small phocid, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Physiological Zoology 65:844–866. , and .
- 1983. Abundance, movements, and feeding-habits of harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, at Netarts and Tillamook Bays, Oregon. Fishery Bulletin 81:291–301. , and .
- 1987. Distribution and haul-out behavior of harbor seals in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65:1391–1396. , , , , and .
- 2012. Between a rock and a hard place: Habitat selection in female-calf humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) pairs on the Hawaiian breeding grounds. PLOS ONE 7:e38004. , , , , , and .
- 2011. Long-term patterns in harbour seal site-use and the consequences for managing protected areas. Animal Conservation 14:430–438. , , , and .
- 2009. Using mobile phone telemetry to investigate the haul-out behaviour of harbour seals Phoca vitulina vitulina. Endangered Species Research 10:255–267. , , and .
- Cruise Line Agencies of Alaska. 2013. Cruise ship calendar for 2013. p. 25. Available at http://www.claalaska.com.
- 2010. The effect of a large Danish offshore wind farm on harbor and gray seal haul-out behavior. Marine Mammal Science 26:614–634. , , , , , and .
- 1994. Annual summary of Alaska Department of Fish and Game instream flow reservation applications. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Sport Fish, Fisheries Data Series No. 94-37. 48 pp. .
- 1966. Thermal requirements in vitro of epidermal cells from seals. Cryobiology 3:261–264. , and .
- 1999. Monitoring the trend of harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine Mammal Science 15:494–506. , and .
- 1990. Demographic consequences of changed pupping and hauling sites of the Hawaiian monk seal. Conservation Biology 4:423–430. , and .
- 2002. Nocturnal and diurnal haul-out patterns of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) at Castro Rocks, San Francisco Bay, California. California Fish and Game 88:15–27. , , and .
- 2004. Harbor seal, Phoca vitulina richardii, population trends in the San Francisco Bay estuary, 1970–2002. California Fish and Game 90:51–70. , , and .
- 2009. Spatial and seasonal relationships between Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) and their prey, at multiple scales. Fishery Bulletin 107:359–372. , , , , and .
- 2012. Foraging distribution of Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) in a highly impacted estuary. Journal of Mammalogy 93:282–293. , , , , and .
- 2005. Mass-dependent energetics and survival in harbour seal pups. Functional Ecology 19:129–135. , , and .
- 2003. Long-term observations of a harbor seal haul-out site in a protected cove In Casco Bay, Gulf of Maine. Northeastern Naturalist 10:141–148. , and .
- 1995. Generalized additive models. Chapman and Hall, CRC, New York, NY. , and .
- 1994. Zero-altered and other regression-models for count data with added zeros. Biometrical Journal 36:531–547.
- 2001. Impact of small boats on the haulout activity of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in Métis Bay, Saint Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Aquatic Mammals 27:140–148. , and .
- 2011. Persistent decline in abundance of harbor seals Phoca vitulina richardsi over three decades in Aialik Bay, an Alaskan tidewater glacial fjord. Marine Ecology Progress Series 424:259–271. , , , and .
- 1983. Behavior and ecology of harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, inhabiting glacial ice in Aialik Bay, Alaska. M.S. thesis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK. 133 pp. .
- 1999. Lunar cycles in diel prey migrations exert a stronger effect on the diving of juveniles than adult Galápagos fur seals. Proceedings: Biological Sciences 266:1127–1132. , and .
- 2006. Disturbance of harbor seals by cruise ships in Disenchantment Bay, Alaska: An investigation at three spatial and temporal scales. AFSC Processed Report 2006–02, National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115. 75 pp. , , and .
- 2010. Reaction of harbor seals to cruise ships. Journal of Wildlife Management 74:1186–1194. , , and .
- 2001. Pupping phenology and demography of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) on Tugidak Island, Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 17:585–600. , and .
- 2006. Long-term trends in harbor seal numbers at Tugidak Island and Nanvak Bay, Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 22:339–360. , , and .
- 2010. The Cape fur seal: Monitoring and management in the Benguela current ecosystem. Ph.D. thesis, University of Capetown, Cape Town, South Africa. 323 pp. .
- 2013. Spatio-temporal shifts of the dynamic Cape fur seal population in southern Africa, based on aerial censuses (1972–2009). Marine Mammal Science 29:497–524. , , , et al.
- 2008. Columbia and Hubbard tidewater glaciers. Pages 54–83 in Glaciers of North America–Glaciers of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO. .
- 1985. Parturition in the Atlantic harbor seal, Phoca vitulina concolor. Journal of Mammalogy 66:395–398. , and .
- 2010. Diving ontogeny and lunar responses in a highly migratory mammal, the northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 419:233–247. , , , and .
- 2012. Haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in Hood Canal, Washington. PLOS ONE 7:e38180. , , , and .
- 1992. Iceberg production in the Prince William Sound area. Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Divison of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Public-Data File 92-20. 4 pp. .
- 2010. Resource selection by animals: Statistical design and analysis for field studies. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Nordrecht, Netherlands. , , , and .
- 2002. Predator aggregations during eulachon Thaleichthys pacificus spawning runs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 231:229–236. , and .
- 1995. Longterm trends in the abundance of harbor seals, (Phoca vitulina richardsi) and the development of monitoring methods in Glacier Bay National Park, Southeast Alaska. Pages 254–263 in D. R. Engstrom, ed. Proceedings of the Third Glacier Bay Science Symposium, Gustavus, AK. U.S. National Park Service, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve.
- 1996. Extreme temporal variation in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) numbers in Glacier bay, a glacial fjord in southeast Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 12:483–489. , and .
- 2006. Declines in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) numbers in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, 1992–2002. Marine Mammal Science 22:167–189. , and .
- 1989. Generalized linear models. 2nd edition. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K. , and .
- McDowell Group Inc. 2012. Alaska visitor statistics program VI, Summer 2011. Prepared for the State of Alaska, Alaska Department of Commerce, Community, and Economic Development, Division of Economic Development. 91 pp.
- 2007. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate. Global and Planetary Change 56:23–56.
- 2008. Glaciers of North America–Glaciers of Alaska in R. S. William, Jr. and J. G. Ferrigno, eds. Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-K. 525 pp. .
- 2007. Spatial modeling of haul-out site use by harbor seals in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series 341:257–264. , and .
- 2007. Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: 2002 closure and outburst of Russell Fjord and postflood conditions at Gilbert Point. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, F02004. 15 pp. , and .
- 1986. Specification and testing of some modified count data models. Journal of Econometrics 33:341–365.
- National Ocean Service. 2010. Pacific and Arctic coasts Alaska: Cape Spencer to Beaufort Sea. U.S. Department of Commerce. United States Coast Pilot 9, 2010 (28th) edition. 580 pp.
- 1973. Observations on breeding behavior of harbor seal in state of Washington. Journal of Mammalogy 54:540–543.
- 2002. Haul-out selection by Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii): Isolation and perceived predation risk. Marine Mammal Science 18:194–205.
- 2000. Warm air advection and the development of barrier jets in the northern Gulf of Alaska. National Weather Service. Submitted to Weather and Forecasting. 16 pp.
- 1980. Food of the Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina richardsi, in the Gulf of Alaska. Fishery Bulletin 78:544–549.
- 1990. Major decline in number of harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, on Tugidak Island, Gulf of Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 6:121–134.
- 1979. Biology of the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina richardsi, in the Gulf of Alaska. Pages 230–310 in Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Final Reports of Principal Investigators. September 1979. Volume 19. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK. , and .
- 2011. A complex relationship between calving glaciers and climate. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union 92:305–306. , , and .
- R Development Core Team. 2006. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
- 2008. Seasonal fluctuations in the advance of a tidewater glacier and potential causes: Hubbard Glacier, Alaska, USA. Journal of Glaciology 54:401–411. , , and .
- 1988. Evidence of autumnal harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, movement from Canada to the United States. Canadian Field-Naturalist 102:527–529. , and .
- 2012. Likely effects of construction of Scroby Sands offshore wind farm on a mixed population of harbour Phoca vitulina and grey Halichoerus grypus seals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64:872–881. , and .
- 2003. Trends in abundance of Alaska harbor seals, 1983–2001. Marine Mammal Science 19:344–362. , and .
- 2008. Harbor seal population decline in the Aleutian archipelago. Marine Mammal Science 24:845–863. , , and .
- 2003. Influences of habitat features and human disturbance on use of breeding sites by a declining population of southern fur seals (Arctocephalus australis). Journal of Zoology 260:145–152. , and .
- 1980. Seasonal occurrence and haul-out use in pinnipeds along Humboldt County, California. Journal of Mammalogy 61:754–760.
- 1999. Variability in reactions of Pacific harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, to disturbance. Fishery Bulletin 97:332–339. , and .
- 2005. Description and interpretation of precocious strandings of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina, Linnaeus 1758) in the Baie de Somme (Picardie, France). La Terre et la Vie-Revue d'Écologie 60:57–63. , and .
- 1989. Seasonal changes in the distribution and composition of common seal (Phoca vitulina ) haul-out groups. Journal of Zoology 217:281–294.
- 1991. Winter foraging by common seals (Phoca vitulina) in relation to food availability in the Inner Moray Firth, N.E. Scotland. Journal of Animal Ecology 60:283–294. , , , and .
- 1981. Effects of lunar cycle on the Galápagos fur seal, Arctocephalus galapagoensis. Oecologia 48:85–92. , and .
- USDA Forest Service. 2001. Annual Monitoring and Evaluation Report for Fiscal Year 2000. U.S. Department of Agriculture. R10-MB-431, April 2001. 17 pp.
- 2003. A Bayesian hierarchical model for monitoring harbor seal changes in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 10:201–219. , and .
- 2007. Space-time zero-inflated count models of harbor seals. Environmetrics 18:697–712. , and .
- 1993. Possible lunar influence on hauling-out behavior by the Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi). Marine Mammal Science 9:68–76.
- 1996. Modelling the abundance of rare species: Statistical models for counts with extra zeros. Ecological Modelling 88:297–308. , , and .
- 2006. Vertebrate exploitation of pulsed marine prey: A review and the example of spawning herring. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 16:183–200. , and .
- 2005. Distribution of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in relation to spring-spawning fish in SE Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series 294:271–282. , , , , and .
- 2010. Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) decline continues in the rapidly changing landscape of Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska 1992–2008. Marine Mammal Science 26:686–697. , , , , and .
- 2006. Generalized additive models: An introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.