• Candida spp.;
  • biofilm;
  • methods for biofilm formation;
  • evaluating biofilms;
  • strategies against biofilms


Biofilm formation is one of the most important attributes for virulence in Candida species and contributes to increased resistance to antifungal drugs and host immune mechanisms. These features have led to the development of several methodologies to reproduce a sessile community in vitro that can be used to study the development of a biofilm, its interaction with other microorganisms and the environment, and its susceptibility to available antifungal agents and also to search for new therapy strategies. The purpose of this review is to describe the most commonly used methods to study Candida biofilms in vitro, to discuss the benefits and limitations of the different methods to induce biofilm formation, and to analyse the architecture, viability and growth kinetics of Candida biofilms.