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Figure S1. Distribution of VEGF (red) and GFAP (green) immunofluorescence in astrocytes in the CA1 region in the hippocampus of normal control rats (AC), rats subjected to smoke exposure at 24 and 72 h (DI) and rats subjected to smoke exposure at 72 h after smoke inhalation + AG (JL). In normal control rats, astrocytes exhibit moderate VEGF labelling which is enhanced at 24 and 72 h (DI) being more conspicuous in the latter (H). VEGF with GFAP immunoexpression is localized in astrocytes (arrows) and their processes which delineate the blood vessels (arrow heads) as seen in F, I and L. Following AG administration at 72 h after smoke inhalation, both VEGF and GFAP immunoexpression is attenuated when compared with 72 h (JL). Scale bar = 50.0 μm in A (applies to AL).

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Figure S2. AQP4 (red) and GFAP (green) immunoexpression in the CA1 region in the hippocampus of normal control rats (AC) and rats subjected to smoke exposure at 24 and 72 h (DI). In the normal hippocampus, AQP4 expression is localized in the astrocytic foot processes (arrows) and blood vessels (arrow heads) (AC). Following smoke exposure, AQP4 expression is increased at different time points (24 and 72 h, DI), notably 24 h (E). Intense AQP4 immunoreactivity is localized in GFAP-labelled astrocytes and blood vessels (C,F,I). Scale bar = 20.0 μm in A (applies to AI).

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Figure S3. Extravasation of RITC (red) in the CA1 region in the hippocampus of normal control rats (AC), rats subjected to smoke exposure and killed at 24 h (DF) and rats subjected to smoke exposure at 24 h after smoke inhalation + AG (GI). In the control rats, the hippocampal tissue is devoid of extravasated RITC (B,C) which is confined to the vascular lumen (arrows) labelled by RECA-1 (green). Following smoke exposure and at 3 h after RITC administration, RITC fluorescence (asterisks) appears to inundate the hippocampal neuropil (DF). In some areas, the RITC fluorescence overlaps with RECA-1 (arrow head) as shown in the merged images (F,I). In rats subjected to smoke exposure but given AG administration, RITC leakage is noticeably reduced as shown by the attenuated fluorescence (GI). The boundaries of RECA-1-labelled blood vessels and their associated VEGF-labelled astrocytic processes (red) are evident in the hippocampus of control (JL) and smoke exposure rats (MO). Scale bar = 20.0 μm in A (applies to AO).

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Figure S4. Distribution of TUNEL (green) and DAPI (blue) immunopositive cells in the CA3 region in the hippocampus of normal control rats (AC), rats subjected to smoke exposure and killed at 72 h (DF) and rats subjected to smoke exposure at 72 h after smoke inhalation + AG (GI). Smoke exposure increases the incidence of apoptotic cells (arrows) in the CA1 region in the hippocampus (DF) compared to control animals (AC) which is not attenuated by the administration of AG (GI). Scale bar = 20.0 μm in A (applies to AI). (J) Bar graphs show increase in apoptotic cells at 72 h after smoke inhalation when compared with the control rats (mean ± SD) (**P < 0.01); the increase is suppressed with AG compared with 72 h, but the decrease is not statistically significant.

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