Thania Paffenholz is a senior researcher at the Centre on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. Her e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org.
Civil Society and Peace Negotiations: Beyond the Inclusion–Exclusion Dichotomy
Article first published online: 22 JAN 2014
© 2014 President and Fellows of Harvard College
Volume 30, Issue 1, pages 69–91, January 2014
How to Cite
Paffenholz, T. (2014), Civil Society and Peace Negotiations: Beyond the Inclusion–Exclusion Dichotomy. Negotiation Journal, 30: 69–91. doi: 10.1111/nejo.12046
- Issue published online: 22 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 22 JAN 2014
- armed conflict;
- peace process;
- civil society;
Civil society is generally seen as an important actor in peace processes. But when it comes to reaching an agreement during peace negotiations, much of the current debate is centered on the question of including or excluding civil society. Although most researchers argue that civil society participation makes the process more sustainable and democratic, most practitioners emphasize that enhanced civil society participation makes it more difficult to reach a peace agreement.
I argue that practitioners and theorists must both move beyond this dichotomy and, instead, focus on the variety of ways in which civil society actors can be included in a given negotiation process. To this end, I present in this article a comprehensive overview of nine models of inclusion, from most to least direct involvement of civil society, supported by illustrative case studies. Analysis of these models suggests that it will be possible to broaden the participation of civil society in peace negotiations without decreasing the negotiations' effectiveness.