• chronic renal disease;
  • human immunodeficiency virus;
  • prevalence;
  • proteinuria;
  • risk factor



The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients in Mainland China.


In this multicenter cross-sectional study, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. CKD was defined as GFRMDRD < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and/or isolated proteinuria (≥1 + on urine dipstick) that persisted at month 3 after the baseline assessment. Risk factors associated with CKD were examined using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis.


In total, 538 HIV-infected ART-naïve patients were included in this study. There were 399 male and 139 female patients. The mean age was 36.5 ± 10.0 years. The prevalence of hypertension, glycometabolism abnormities, and CKD were 3.2%, 3.0%, and 16.1%, respectively. Thirteen (2.4%) patients had estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, while 73 (13.7%) patients had proteinuria. Using univariate analysis, CKD was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) associated with age, hypertension, HCV co-infection, and plasma HIV-1 viral load ≥ 100 000 copies/mL. In the multivariate logistic regression model, older age (increased by an interval of 10 years; P = 0.002), HCV co-infection (P = 0.039), and plasma HIV-1 viral load ≥ 100 000 copies/mL (P = 0.011) were significantly associated with CKD.


The incidence of CKD is high in Chinese HIV-infected ART-naïve patients. Traditional risk factors for renal disease, such as advancing age, HCV co-infection, and higher plasma viral load were correlated with CKD in the present patient samples.