Author contributions: Ying Cao assisted with the study design, performed the data statistical analyses and wrote this manuscript. Mengchun Gong assisted with the study design and helped to draft the manuscript. Yang Han recruited patients and performed HIV-1 viral load test. Jing Xie tested CD4 + T cell count. Xuemei Li helped to draft the manuscript. Lixia Zhang did renal function assay. Yanling Li and Xiaojing Song did clinical data collection. Ting Zhu performed HIV-1 viral load test. Taisheng Li designed and supervised this study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients in Mainland China: A multicenter cross-sectional study
Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Nephrology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology
Volume 18, Issue 4, pages 307–312, April 2013
How to Cite
Cao, Y., Gong, M., Han, Y., Xie, J., Li, X., Zhang, L., Li, Y., Song, X., Zhu, T. and Li, T. (2013), Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients in Mainland China: A multicenter cross-sectional study. Nephrology, 18: 307–312. doi: 10.1111/nep.12031
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
- Issue online: 27 MAR 2013
- Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 11 JAN 2013 06:52AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 6 JAN 2013
- National Key Technologies R&D Program. Grant Number: 2012ZX10001-003
- Key Clinical Program of the Ministry of Health
- chronic renal disease;
- human immunodeficiency virus;
- risk factor
The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients in Mainland China.
In this multicenter cross-sectional study, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. CKD was defined as GFRMDRD < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and/or isolated proteinuria (≥1 + on urine dipstick) that persisted at month 3 after the baseline assessment. Risk factors associated with CKD were examined using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
In total, 538 HIV-infected ART-naïve patients were included in this study. There were 399 male and 139 female patients. The mean age was 36.5 ± 10.0 years. The prevalence of hypertension, glycometabolism abnormities, and CKD were 3.2%, 3.0%, and 16.1%, respectively. Thirteen (2.4%) patients had estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, while 73 (13.7%) patients had proteinuria. Using univariate analysis, CKD was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) associated with age, hypertension, HCV co-infection, and plasma HIV-1 viral load ≥ 100 000 copies/mL. In the multivariate logistic regression model, older age (increased by an interval of 10 years; P = 0.002), HCV co-infection (P = 0.039), and plasma HIV-1 viral load ≥ 100 000 copies/mL (P = 0.011) were significantly associated with CKD.
The incidence of CKD is high in Chinese HIV-infected ART-naïve patients. Traditional risk factors for renal disease, such as advancing age, HCV co-infection, and higher plasma viral load were correlated with CKD in the present patient samples.