• BLys;
  • IFN;
  • IL-6;
  • IL-17;
  • IL-18;
  • TNF;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus


The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) entails a complex interaction between the different arms of the immune system. While autoantibodies production and immune complex deposition are cornered as hallmark features of SLE, there is growing evidence to propose the pathogenic role of cytokines in this disease. Examples of these cytokines include BLys, interleukin-6, interleukin-17, interleukin-18, type I interferons and tumour necrosis factor alpha. These cytokines all assume pivotal functions to orchestrate the differentiation, maturation and activation of various cell types, which would mediate local inflammatory process and tissue injury. The knowledge on these cytokines not only fosters our understanding of the disease, but also provides insights in devising biomarkers and targeted therapies. In this review, we focus on cytokines which have substantial pathogenic significance and also highlight the possible clinical applications of these cytokines.